100 most impressive records of the world and nature

The Obvious-Believable: 100 Most Amazing Things Human Beings Have Seen in Nature

Nature is one of the most popular topics on the Internet. And people who managed to observe and capture something unique, of course, want to share it with others. Because the emotions from what they saw is off the scale! A subreddit called r/MildlyInteresting was even created on the Web in 2012, and it has become one of the largest Reddit communities – it has 18.7 million followers! And this is understandable, because there are in fact very many people who can spot the unusual. And even their “findings” are sometimes so incredible that it’s hard to believe them until you see them with your own eyes.

1. The tree, on the trunk of which grew other trees

Spending time in nature is really rewarding, even if you come back without a cool photo to upload to r/MildlyInteresting . Fresh air, sunshine…sometimes a short walk outside is all we need to feel rested and restored. But that’s just the tip of the iceberg.

The University of Michigan, for example, conducted a study that found that students who take regular walks in nature absorb information better.

2. A truck door handle on a frosty morning

3. A flock of sparrows resembles a horse, while real horses gallop under the birds

In a world where we are surrounded by screens, disconnecting from the Net and getting outside can be great stress relievers. Nature calms our brains, even if we only go outside for five minutes each day. In addition, outdoor exercise such as walking, hiking, etc. stimulates blood flow and heartbeat – another way to reduce stress levels.

4. Watch how this bird sits while eating

5. My cat has a genetic mutation that causes her eyes to be weird, yet she has perfect vision

Studies also show that getting 15 to 20 minutes of sunshine a day will allow your body to produce vitamin D, which helps strengthen bones and reduce the risk of cancer, type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis.

In addition, walking outdoors helps boost your immune system, according to research.

6. The neighborhood in Washington, D.C., where I worked looks like Jurassic Park

7. Frozen ice looks like a fairy forest

Some of nature’s health benefits have to do with making people more active when they are outdoors.

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But research shows that even being outdoors passively (such as the Japanese “forest bathing”) can improve health.

Patricia Hasbach, Ph.D., a licensed psychotherapist and ecotherapist in Eugene, Oregon, said that nature also provides a break from hours of tedious “directed attention”-time spent focused on our work, computer screen, driving.

8. I saw a white deer in the woods the other day

“When people interrupt their directed attention for even a short time outdoors, they tend to engage involuntary attention,” Hasbach explained. – “It becomes very restorative when people have to go back to focused attention.

These benefits, however, only show up if you put your smartphone aside and give your full attention to nature, whether it’s the spectacular view of the Grand Canyon or the tree next to your apartment.

Nikolai Nepomnyashchy – 100 Great Wildlife Records

Here you can download free “Nikolai Nepomnyashchy – 100 Great Wildlife Records” in fb2, epub, txt, doc, pdf format. Genre: Nature and animals, published by Veche, the year 2008. You can also read the book online without registration and SMS on LibFox.Ru (LibFox) or read the description and read the reviews.

Nikolay Nepomnyashchiy - 100 great records of wildlife

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Description of the book “100 Great Wildlife Records”

Description and summary of “100 Great Wildlife Records” read for free online.

A new book in the series “100 Greats” tells about the records in the world of wildlife. Much of the phenomena of wildlife, peculiarities of life and behavior of the inhabitants of land and the ocean, simple and complex organisms had long been studied and described by scientists. And yet we never cease to amaze and admire the properties of plants, invertebrate animals, fish, amphibians and reptiles, birds and animals. And if you try to build a peculiar rating of their records and achievements, sometimes even the usual representatives of flora and fauna begin to look like unique creatures of the Creator. The longest algae and the tallest tree, the largest and rarest beetle and the largest fish, the most “hardened” bird and the rarest mammal on Earth – these and many other “record holders” pass through the pages of the collection.

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The 100 Greatest Wildlife Records

THE WORLD’S LARGEST LIVING ORGANISM – A PARASITIC FUNGUS OF THE HONEY BEE GENUS

The discovery of the largest mushroom in the world, which can be up to 8,500 years old and covers almost 10 square kilometers of forest, raised the question of how the forest ecosystem really works. It turned out that so far the actions of foresters on sanitary cutting of trees, aimed against the spread of the parasitic mushroom, only caused harm to the forests.

A routine study of the life activity of tree parasitic fungi in Oregon (USA) led to an unexpected discovery. It turned out that a single mushroom individual covered an area of approximately 1600 soccer fields with its fungus. The discovery was reported in an issue of the Canadian Journal of Forestry Research.

This mushroom is the best known and most common species of the genus of the honey fungus, but it is also a parasitic mushroom, settling on trees throughout the northern hemisphere of the planet. It lives in the soil and spreads mainly through the roots of the tree, introducing special threads of the fungus called rhizoids into the thickness of the wood. The only visible evidence of its activity are fruiting bodies in the form of mushroom caps growing on the stumps, trunks and roots of dead and dying trees.

Researchers discovered the giant mushroom in Maler National Park, a 590,000-hectare area consisting of high-altitude fields, pine forests and mountain lakes. This area lies between 1,200 and 2,750 meters above sea level.

A single organism of such large size led to a new understanding of the role of mushrooms in forest ecology. It used to be thought that mushrooms like opiate mushrooms grew in groups, whose boundaries could be detected from the air by the circular zones of dead trees.

But when researchers collected mushroom samples from a 9.65-square-kilometer area throughout the Oregon Forest, they found that they were samples of the same mushroom.

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Scientists estimated its age to be between 2,000 and 8,500 years old.

“This is a single organism that began its growth as a microscopic spore and then began to spread like a plant,” states Dr. Catherine Parks of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. – “If we could remove all the soil and look at what’s left, we’d see just one big pile of a single fungus with all its filaments of fungus that permeate all the soil below the surface.

Foresters used to think that the spread of the parasitic fungus could be prevented by cutting down all the trees in the affected area. But it turned out that since the fungus is thousands of years old and has survived numerous previous fires, all these measures taken have no effect.

Researchers now believe that the fungus is part of the natural cycle of tree reproduction in forests and that it is often present in areas with little tree damage.

Foresters may now not bother with sanitation cuts to prevent the spread of the parasitic fungus. Moreover, all their measures so far have only had the opposite effect: after destroying trees in infested areas, the fungus was forced to seek out new trees for its reproduction and cultivation of fruiting bodies, which only contributed to the fungus spreading to healthy trees and infecting new areas.

Scientists did find ways to prevent the spread of the parasitic fungus. This is done by planting trees that are less susceptible to the fungus – such as western larch, western white pine and yellow pine. Of course, the consequences of introducing new tree species for the area must be carefully studied.

For our forestry, this question is also of interest, since the beech osprey also grows in the forest belt of Russia. Apparently, the principle of distribution of all opiolets is the same, regardless of their species and habitat zone. So, when we in the woods collect opyat, perhaps we put in our basket the fruiting bodies of the same mushroom.

THE LONGEST SEAWEED IS BROWN ALGAE

Brown algae, which reaches 200 m in length, lives off the Pacific coast of the Americas. Its pseudosteel is attached to the seabed at a depth of 2 to 40 m. On the surface, flat formations resembling mobile leaves float. Often these algae form entire floating islands. There are about 1500 species in total.

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Brown algae are now considered a class in the division Heterokontophyta These marine plants are often striking for their gigantic size, variety of forms, and complexity of structure. Most brown algae live in coastal waters, attaching to rocks and stones and to other algae. All species of this class are multicellular. There are no free-living flagellates among brown algae. Only reproductive cells have flagella. The morphological and anatomical structure of the algal body is very diverse, from microscopic single-row filaments to enormous parenchymatous forms several meters in length, with a high level of differentiation of the algal layer, as in the laminaria.

Like all members of the division, cells of brown algae have chlorophyll “a” and “c” and no chlorophyll “c”. Chloroplasts are disk-shaped, golden brown, because chlorophyll is masked by an additional pigment, the carotenoid fucoxanthin. This pigment, in combination with tannins, gives plants of this group their characteristic brown coloring. The main reserve substance is chrysolaminaran, and mannitol (sugar alcohol) and fats are also found. Mannitol also regulates the penetration of substances through cell membranes (osmosis).

On the coast of the Barents Sea, brown algae are the dominant group both in the number of species and in the biomass produced. This group determines the appearance of coastal vegetation of the northern seas. On the littoral (the part of the seabed exposed at low tide), fucus algae settle on rocks and stones, sometimes in significant numbers. These are large algae – Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, F. distichus, F. serratus with a thick crust, which often has air bubbles or air cavities that help the plants to rise and take upright position at high tide. The bubbles, dried at low tide, click underfoot. A variety of filamentous brown algae – Pilayella litoralis, Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus, Chordaria flagelliformis and many others – may settle in puddles between the fucoids and on the fucoids themselves. The upper part of the sublittoral zone in the northern seas of Russia is inhabited by large brown algae – laminaria. Powerful thickets on rocks and stones along the Murmansk coast form Laminaria saccharina, L. digitata, L. hyperbora, Alaria esculenta. In bays, Laminaria saccharina is the most typical representative of the sublittoral belt of algae.

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In the Barents and White Seas fishermen catch fucoids and laminaria to obtain alginate, mannite and a number of other substances. Seaweed (Laminaria saccharina) is eaten in many countries.

Brown alga contains amino acids (lysine, methionine, tryptophan, arginine, tyrosine, serine, threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, leucine, isoleucine, valine); vitamins A, P, B group; microelements (calcium, iodine, iron, copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc, sulfur, sodium, potassium etc.).

Brown algae slows down the development of atherosclerosis and reduces cholesterol content in blood. A big quantity of polysaccharides in brown algae has property to swell up and by increasing in volume irritate nerve endings of intestinal mucosa, what stimulates its peristalsis and favors its purification. Polysaccharides also bind toxins and remove them from the body, and alginates of brown algae – salts of heavy metals and radionuclides.

THE SIMPLEST PLANTS ARE ALGAE

Algae are a group of lower aquatic plants that usually contain chlorophyll and produce organic matter through photosynthesis. The algae body (thallus, stratum) has no true roots, stems or leaves. Their size varies in different species from fractions of a micrometer to tens of meters. They are non-cellular, unicellular, multicellular, colonial, free-floating and attached organisms. Their reproduction is asexual, vegetative and sexual. Divisions (or types) of algae: green, brown, red, golden, yellow-green, diatom and others. There are about 30,000 species in total.

Algae are the main producers of organic matter in fresh water and seas. They are the part of plankton and benthos. Some of them are edible (e.g. laminaria porphyra), others become raw material for producing fodder, agar-agar, carrageenan, iodine and others (many of them are used in aquaculture). A number of algae (chlorella and others) are tested as components of biocomplexes included in the life support system of spacecraft. Some unicellular algae in symbiosis with fungi form lichens.

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