Bolivia – The Plurinational State of Bolivia, South America


Andean condor - symbol of Bolivia, Bolivia.

The Andean condor is the symbol of Bolivia, Bolivia. Photo by Kevin Wakelam.

The multinational State of Bolivia is located in central South America. The country has land borders with Brazil, Chile and Peru, but is landlocked. Despite large reserves of natural resources, Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. The situation in the country is complicated by an unstable political situation and drug trafficking – Bolivia is considered one of the main suppliers of cocaine in the world.

Flamingo in flight, Laguna Colorada, Bolivia.

Flamingo in flight, Laguna Colorada, Bolivia. Photo by Julio Cesar Aguiar Garcia.

History of the country

The first humans in what is now Bolivia appeared about 10,000 years ago and in the 6th century B.C. the Pukina State emerged here, which became the center of the Andean civilization of Tiwanaku. The period of prosperity of Puquina, which occupied most of the Andean highlands, occurred in the VII-IX centuries AD. In the fourteenth century Pukina was conquered by the Inca Empire.

In 1538 the period of Spanish domination began. The Inca Empire fell to the conquistadors, who named the region Upper Peru and founded several settlements. In the territory of Upper Peru, one of the main economic centers of the Spanish kingdom in South America, the development of silver mines, considered at the time to be the largest in the world, began. The enslaved Indians tried to fight for their freedom, but all local rebellions were harshly suppressed by the Spanish.

In 1809 a rebellion broke out in the town of Chuquisaca, and later in other cities of Upper Peru. The Indians, fighting against slavery, were joined by the local bourgeoisie, who wanted to trade freely and not have to pay taxes to the Spanish treasury. Simón Bolívar, who had successfully fought against the enslavers in other Spanish colonies, became the inspiration for the rebellion.

Simon Bolivar, Bolivia.

Simon Bolivar, Bolivia. Photo by svenwerk.

The war against the colonizers lasted until 1824, when the troops of Antonio Jose Sucre, who was one of the main associates of Simón Bolívar, entered the territory of Upper Peru and defeated the Spanish army at the Battle of Ayacucho.

Antonio Jose de Sucre, Bolivia

Antonio Jose de Sucre, Bolivia. The author of the photo is my cottage.

In 1825 the former colony declared itself an independent republic. Similar to Rome, named after its founder Romulus, the new state was named Bolivia in honor of Simon Bolivar, and the capital was named Sucre in honor of the liberator general who defeated the Spanish.

Despite gaining independence from Spain, Bolivia retained its slave system. Slavery was not formally abolished until 1850 with the adoption of a new constitution. The situation in the country remained unstable – throughout the 19th century Bolivia experienced constant rebellions, frequent changes of political elites, military conflicts with Chile and a civil war between Indians of the North and the South.

The twentieth century brought significant changes in Bolivia’s economy. Silver mining took a back seat, and rubber became the main export commodity, the demand for which rose sharply due to the development of the automobile industry. The richest deposits of tin, as well as tungsten, copper and other minerals were discovered in the country. Bolivia became an export economy, and the production of tin was entirely under the control of the United States and Great Britain.

In 1936 a socialist revolution took place in the country, nationalizing all the property of foreign companies, and Bolivia again plunged into political chaos, with rebellions, numerous military coups, and frequent changes of power. In 1939, the 35-year-old president of Bolivia, Herman Bush Beserra, committed suicide for unknown reasons, and in 1946 the head of the republic, Gualberto Villarroel, was mauled by a mob of rebels.

Relative political stability came only at the beginning of the XXI century, when for the first time since pre-Columbian times Evo Morales came to power in the country, an ethnic Indian who held the presidency much longer than all his predecessors.

Evo Morales’ presidential term

Evo Morales, Bolivia

Evo Morales, Bolivia. Photo by Terry Sebastian.

Morales, who held power for nearly 14 years, was born into a poor peasant family and did not receive a full high school education. After serving in the army, where Morales was a trumpeter in the regimental band, the young man went to work in the mountainous region of Chapare. The region became famous for its coca bush plantations, the raw material for cocaine production. Because of his innate leadership qualities, Morales quickly gained credibility and became one of the leaders of the coca growers’ union.

In the middle of the nineties Morales created his own party, called “Movement to Socialism”, and in 2002, unexpectedly for the political elites, he won second place in the presidential elections. Morales’ Indian origins ensured his popularity among the population, thanks to which he became widely known throughout Latin America.

In 2005 Morales ran for president again, basing his program on the confrontation with the USA as well as on his promises to nationalize the gas industry and to lift restrictions on the cultivation of coca bushes.

After receiving the support of 54% of the population, Morales became president. In the next elections in 2009, his support grows – 63% of Bolivians cast their votes for the current head of state.

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Despite the fact that the Bolivian Constitution allows only two consecutive presidential terms, Morales ran for president again and won with 61% of the vote. The right to run for a third term was given to the current head of state by the Supreme Court, not counting the first term of the presidency.

In order to legitimize the continued participation of Evo Morales in the elections of the head of state, in 2014 Bolivia organized a referendum on the abolition of restrictions on presidential terms. However, the population did not support the initiative of the authorities – 63% of those who voted against it.

Nevertheless, the results of the referendum were ignored by the authorities, and the current leader of the country was nominated as a candidate in the upcoming elections. The legality of the next nomination of Morales was ensured by the decision of the Supreme Court, which found the limitation of terms of presidency unconstitutional. Bolivian authorities announced that the results of the referendum could not be valid, because the United States launched a propaganda campaign against Morales.

In the October 2019 elections, Morales was declared the winner by a 10 percent margin. After the results were announced, protests and riots erupted throughout Bolivia. A state of emergency was declared in the country, and Morales claimed a coup attempt initiated by enemies from abroad. At the same time, the election committee said it was ready to allow experts from the Organization of American States to verify the results of the vote.

After the international organization published the results of the verification, recommending the annulment of the election results due to extensive manipulation, Morales’ resignation was demanded by the military. On November 10, 2019, Evo Morales relinquished the presidency and left office. Two days later, the former president fled to Mexico, where he was granted political asylum.

An arrest warrant has now been issued for the former leader of the country, who is charged by Bolivian law enforcement with terrorism and sedition. Morales has also been repeatedly accused of corruption, abuse of power and nepotism.

The former president’s position on drugs is controversial. According to Morales, coca leaves are considered sacred by the indigenous population and their narcotic effect is less than that of coffee.

Abandonment of presidential power

Since Morales’ resignation, Bolivia has witnessed a unique situation in which the country’s top leaders have one after another begun to refuse to assume the presidency. The vice-president, the speaker and the first vice-speaker of the Senate, as well as the president of the House of Representatives expressed their unwillingness to assume the presidency. Only the second vice-speaker of the Senate, Janine Añez, who is an ardent opponent of Morales, agreed to perform the duties of the president.

Janine Agnés Chávez, Bolivia

Janine Agnés Chávez, Bolivia.

Upon coming to power, Agnés formed a government in which not a single representative of the indigenous peoples of Bolivia had a place. This move was perceived by many as a politician’s refusal to overcome deep ethnic and political differences.

Economic situation

The Bolivian economy is underdeveloped and agrarian oriented. The country ranks 122nd in the world in terms of GDP per capita. The state is considered one of the poorest in the region – more than 70% of the population live below the poverty line.

However, the standard of living of the population is gradually improving. Over the past 10 years, the country has increased the minimum wage, which today is higher than in Russia. At the same time, Bolivia has become one of the few countries where people’s incomes have managed to increase without an increase in inflation.

The country possesses enormous natural resources. Bolivia has the second largest natural gas reserves in South America, after Venezuela. There are also large reserves of oil, iron ore, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, antimony, lead, and gold.

The agricultural industry specializes in the cultivation of coffee, cocoa, citrus fruits, bananas, rice, cassava, and tropical fruits. One of the main areas of animal husbandry is the cultivation of llamas.

Lamas, Bolivia

llamas, Bolivia. The author of the photo is Isabel Chauvel.

The country has a negative foreign trade balance, indicating that imports exceed exports. The main exports are sales of mining products and agriculture. Bolivia imports petroleum products, cars and trucks, rentals, chemicals, food and various manufactured goods.

Coca growing

Bolivia is the only state in the world that has legalized the cultivation of coca bushes. The practice of chewing coca leaves is common among the country’s indigenous peoples and dates back more than a thousand years. A special government decree allows every peasant family to cultivate coca bushes on a plot of land not exceeding 1.6 hectares. However, most of Bolivia’s coca is grown on illegal plantations.

Coca, Bolivia

Coca, Bolivia. Photo by Giuseppe.

Bolivia is currently among the world’s largest producers of cocaine, second only to Colombia and Peru. From Bolivia, cocaine enters the United States and countries in Europe. The United States has attempted to destroy coca plantations in southeastern Bolivia, but their attempts have met with stiff resistance and have been unsuccessful.


Lamas, Uyuni Salt Desert, Bolivia

Lamas, Uyuni Salt Desert, Bolivia. The author of the photo is Julio Cesar Aguiar Garcia.

Bolivia is home to many nationalities. The country ranks first in the world in terms of the number of official languages – Spanish, considered the native language by more than 60% of the population, and 36 Amerindian languages have official status.

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The population is 10 million people, of which:

  • 55% are Indians (mostly Aymara and Quechura);
  • 30% are mestizos (descendants of interracial marriages);
  • 15% are white (descendants of immigrants from Spain and other European countries).

Aymara, Cusco, Bolivia

Aymara, Cuzco, Bolivia. Photo by Darrell Chaddock.

The predominant religion in Bolivia is Christianity – 59% of the population are Catholics and 11% Protestants. 15% of the population consider themselves followers of Indian religions, 12% are agnostics and atheists, representatives of other religions account for 3%.


Bolivia has a poorly developed health care system. Modern clinics are only in the capital and large cities. In rural areas to get skilled medical care is not always possible. The choice of drugs in pharmacies is quite scarce.

The average life expectancy of Bolivians is:

  • women – 70 years;
  • Men: 64 years.


University, Sucre, Bolivia

University, Sucre, Bolivia. The author of the photo is Pierre Doyen.

According to the last census, women can read and write:

  • 97.5% men;
  • 92.5% of women.

Bolivia is considered the least educated country in Latin America. The urban population has a higher level of education, while in rural areas this indicator is much worse.

The leading educational institution in the country is the University of Bolivia, which includes 8 public and one private university. Most students in Bolivia study social sciences. Technical fields and natural sciences are in low demand among Bolivian youth.


Train Buses, Jotala, Bolivia

Railroad buses, Jotala, Bolivia. Photo by John Phillips.

The Bolivian railroad network is integrated with the railroads of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay in a single system. The gauge is 1,000 mm.

Paved roads account for about 10% of the total length of roads.

Bolivia ranks 7th in the world for the number of airports. However, only 21 of the 855 airports have paved runways. The country has seven airlines. There are established air links with Europe, North and South America. Annual passenger traffic on domestic and international flights is 2.5 million people.

Bolivia has no access to the ocean, but this problem has been solved thanks to an agreement with Peru, which leased a small plot of coastal territory for the construction of a port complex for 99 years.


Lake Titicaca, Bolivia

Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Photo by Elias Rovielo.

The unique nature, rich flora and fauna, diverse culture, interesting history and many attractions have provided Bolivia with a huge interest from tourists. In recent years there has been an increase in the flow of foreign tourists, making the tourism industry an important source of income and foreign exchange earnings.

The most popular tourist sites in Bolivia are the high altitude Lake Titicaca, which is navigable, and Madidi National Park, located in the Amazon basin.

Squirrel monkey, Madidi National Park, Bolivia

Squirrel monkey, Madidi National Park, Bolivia. Photo by Tony.


National Anthem of Bolivia.

Bolivia is located in central South America. It is the most “Indian” state, as the majority of its population is made up of Quechua and Aymara Indians. More than anywhere else, it displays the main features of the South American indigenous mentality – contemplation, tranquility and friendliness. The country got its modern name after gaining independence in 1825, in honor of Simon Bolivar, a famous fighter for the freedom of his homeland.

Save on your trip to Bolivia!

Video: Bolivia


The city of Sucre is officially considered the capital of Bolivia, although the government is actually located in La Paz (about 757,000 inhabitants). This city could be considered the highest mountain capital of the world: its airport is located about 4000 meters above sea level, and those who come here are strongly advised to drink tea made of coca to acclimatize.

Bolivia is said to be a beggar sitting on a golden throne. The country is very rich in natural resources – gold and tin – but many indigenous people still live very poorly. Recently among the miners you can often find Russians. Tourist service is not rich, but it is reliable and surprisingly cheap. The most common routes: La Paz – Lake Titicaca (2 hours), La Paz – the eastern slopes of the Andes (the cities of Koroiko, Guanaya, etc.). In just a few hours you can drive through cold highland deserts where llamas graze, through tropical evergreen forests into the middle relatively dry zone, where banana, pineapple, coca and other crops are planted. There are also many upscale hotels. Boating can take you into the hot Amazon wilderness by river.

Climate and weather

The peculiarity of Bolivia’s climate is that this country does not have a single complete climatic zone. There is a subequatorial and tropical climate on the plains, but in the mountainous areas the weather takes on a sharply continental character. In summer (which in Bolivia is from September to February) air temperature rises to +34 ° C. It rains a lot during this time. In winter (from March to April) in Bolivia is quite comfortable for human temperature – +21 ° C. In the west of the country, on the Altiplano Plateau, the average daily temperature reaches +15 ° C. And the highlands differ from other areas of Bolivia, where the thermometer shows +5 … +11 ° C throughout the year. This country is characterized by very large variations in temperature during the winter.

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When choosing a time to travel to Bolivia, you should consider the period from May to October. And most tourists from around the world come to this wonderful country in August.


The majestic mountains, beautiful blue lakes, exotic forests – all this makes Bolivia a beautiful unforgettable country which attracts more and more tourists every year.

Bolivia is a mostly mountainous country. A large part of its territory is located in the Andes. Along the border with Chile are the Western Cordilleras, which include a huge number of active volcanoes. Here is the highest mountain in Bolivia, Sayama, which reaches more than 6.5 km high.

Bolivia is a country not only of high mountains, but also of beautiful blue lakes and rivers. Most tourists when visiting the country visit one of the largest lakes in the world – Lake Titicaca. Its area is about 8,500 km².

Many come to Bolivia to see the famous salt lakes. The unique salt lakes attract people not only with their unique views, but also with the opportunity to live for a few days in the only salt hotel in the world.

Beautiful rainforests occupy about 40% of the country. The most common plants are rubber trees, as well as vanilla and saffron. In this country grows one of the most amazing representatives of flora – cow (or milk) tree. The sap of the plant really resembles cow’s milk in color and taste.

Sightseeing at

When traveling to Bolivia, it is important to plan your itinerary so you can see as many sights as possible. The most famous of them are the magnificent Lake Titicaca, unique salt marshes, as well as a huge number of architectural structures of Inca culture.

When visiting Sucre, the capital of Bolivia, be sure to visit the famous small town of Tarabuco, which has the largest market in the country. Dinosaur lovers must see the Dinosaur-Marc Valley, where a huge number of dinosaur footprints and fossils of other Jurassic animals and plants have been found.

La Paz is known for its unique buildings from the Spanish period. Most of the colonial buildings today house museums that present visitors with exhibits about the history and culture of the inhabitants of the city and country.

The Zongo Valley, with its magnificent blue lakes and ice caves, is of the greatest interest to tourists. Nearby are the ruins of the most mysterious Andean city, Tiahuanaco, famous for its unique Gate of the Sun and the Acapana Pyramid. Tourists are especially fascinated by the megalithic masonry located near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca.

Lake Titicaca is the highest body of water in the world. The name of this unique body of water means “stone puma” in Indian. And indeed, if you look at the lake from above, its outline resembles the outline of a puma’s body. Since ancient times, it was considered sacred by the Indians.

Unique salt lake Salar de Uyuni annually gathers a large number of foreign tourists. During the rains, the salt marshes are covered with a thin layer of water, which makes the surface of the lake smooth and mirror-like. It gives the impression that this is the place where the land and sky meet.


The Bolivian cuisine is based on national Indian dishes which have undergone Spanish influence. The main products in cooking are potatoes, corn, and meat. Bolivians mostly eat pork, beef, and poultry and alpaca meat. People in remote villages still cook and eat guinea pigs.

The local population prefers to cook food with a lot of oil. The most common dish in Bolivia is considered… shish kebab. Having tasted this famous dish here, you can doubt who cooks better – Bolivians or Georgians. It is a prerequisite for serving meat dishes with the local spicy sauces “leyahua” and “locotos”.

When visiting local restaurants waiters will certainly recommend you to try the national dish “pike-a-lo-macho”. The basis of this famous food is grilled meat served with potatoes and seasoned with tomato and onion sauce. Another famous Bolivian dish is “silpancho,” where steak and eggs are placed on a bed of potatoes and rice.

Quite famous in Bolivia is the unique fruit salad “ensalada de frutas” – small pieces of local juicy fruits are poured with fresh yogurt and honey, and the subtle taste of this salad is given by nuts added to it.

Not a single lunch or dinner in Bolivia can do without the famous Bolivian alcoholic drink “chichi”. It is drunk from small bowls, which have a sloping bottom. This is done to ensure that it was impossible to put the bowl without finishing the chicha. Most tourists, when dining at restaurants, opt for the local beer “Paseña” or “Huare”, which tastes no worse than German or Czech counterparts.

Prices in Bolivian restaurants are quite reasonable. A three-course lunch for two people will cost $10. And in a cheap cafe the same set of products will cost about $ 3.


Hotels and hotels in Bolivia have no official classification. However, hotels that are part of major networks of international tour operators, have their deserved stars. It is worth noting that there are very few five-star hotels in Bolivia, located mainly in Santa Cruz and La Paz.

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Before choosing a hotel for a night stay must clarify in advance whether rooms have air conditioning and hot water. A large number of services in Bolivian hotels are available at additional cost.

Bolivia is known for its original and unique salt hotel Palacio de Sal, which is located in the heart of the Uyuni salt marsh. In this hotel everything is made of salt blocks. To check in there, you need to book rooms months in advance, as this hotel is in high demand among foreigners. The cost of a double room is just over $ 135 per night. In this hotel you can visit the pool with salt water, as well as a hot tub and a Russian sauna.

Entertainment and Recreation

Bolivia offers a variety of unforgettable activities. Many fans of extreme sports, as well as those who prefer a quiet and measured rest will find something to their liking here.

Lovers of active recreation often come here. Eastern slopes of the Andes of this country is considered the best for mountain climbing, trekking and other extreme sports. Very common among tourists are hiking the Inca Trail, which runs through the highlands, as well as biking along the Road of Death.

Those who are into skiing know that this is where the most alpine ski resort in the entire world, Chacaltaya, is located. This place has created about a dozen slopes, which are served by eight elevators. Chacaltaya is considered the most extreme resort in the world, because the local air has a fairly low level of oxygen, which makes it very difficult to move through the local mountains. If you decide to look in the area, the best time to visit it is considered the period from April to June.

Especially attractive for tourists are the architectural monuments of the ancient nations that inhabited this area before the Spanish invasion. Most coming to this original country of tourists dream to visit a village of Indian tribes, plunge into their lives, and take part in various carnivals and holidays of the unique people. Tour companies are organized by many tours of ancient Indian villages with an opportunity to stay overnight in a traditional dwelling of endangered peoples. Such a tour you will never forget!

One of the most visited places in Bolivia is Lake Titicaca. This high mountain lake with its magnificent scenery is mesmerizing. There are numerous islands on the lake that are open to the public.

The most unusual landscape on the planet is also in Bolivia – it is an unusual salt lake Uyuni with an area of 12,000 km². In some places, the thickness of the layer of rock salt here reaches 10 m. Many people who have come here, recognize this place as the most amazing in the world.

Bolivia is home to the largest zoo in South America. It is located near the town of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. In this place you can see the flora and fauna of South America and all over the world.


When buying souvenirs in Bolivia you may be confused by the great variety of such products. Each nation of this country creates original, unlike anything else. Especially popular among tourists have products made of Bolivian wood, ceramics, local textiles, knitted bags. The peculiarity of all these items is insanely bright colors.

When choosing edibles be sure to get the most delicious chocolate in Sucre. In terms of taste, it can compete even with its famous Swiss brother.

Trekking enthusiasts can buy in this country outfit known brands of excellent quality, and most importantly, at a very affordable price.

Local stores and shops are open from 8:00 to 19:00 with a break for lunch. In the larger towns the tourist hotspot stores are open until late evening, and some supermarkets are open 24 hours a day.


The most common modes of transport in Bolivia are bus and airplane. In general, air travel in this country is excellent, mainly due to the inability to get to some inaccessible places by ground transport. There is an airport in Bolivia in almost every populated area. Domestic flights are provided by several local companies Aerosur, Amaszonas, BoA, GOL, Aerocon and TAM. Prices for domestic flights are quite reasonable, the average cost per flight is about $120. But this country has its own peculiarities of traveling by air. When you register for an airplane, you must pay a tax of 15 bolivianos, which is about $3. If you fly to another country in Bolivia the tax increases to $25.

Bus service connects major cities with small villages. The peculiarity of using this mode of transport in Bolivia is that its operation ends after 6:00 pm. In this country you can meet as modern comfortable buses, as well as “prehistoric units. The cost of a bus ride with air conditioning and sanitary facilities lasting up to an hour is $2. It is also possible to rent a car in Bolivia, the cost of such a service for a week will be about $ 400.

Railroads are not very popular in Bolivia, however, there are some routes, which can be of great interest for tourists. The most attractive branch of the railroad is the Uyuni-Oruro. The magnificent scenic views from the train window will not leave anyone indifferent.

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Surprisingly enough, but communication in Bolivia is quite good. Mobile operators support standards TDMA and GSM 190. They fully cover all the flat areas of the country and the capital. In mountainous areas, mobile communications are present selectively. Local mobile operators support roaming for most major European companies.

Bolivia’s telecommunications system is of a high standard. The national telephone company, ENTEL, provides local calls as well as long distance and international calls. The cost of local calls is quite low, and international calls have a high price. For example, a one minute call to Europe costs more than $1.1, and for a call to North America you have to pay just over $0.5.

Network technology in Bolivia is developing very rapidly. In large cities there are a large number of Internet cafes, the cost per hour of Internet use in such establishments is just over $ 5.


For the most part, Bolivia is considered a safe country for tourists. The biggest crime against foreigners here is fraud. Exercise extreme caution when in crowded places, pickpockets can operate here, so always keep a bag with a purse in sight.

As in any country with a tropical climate, there are various infectious diseases in Bolivia, so you should get the necessary vaccinations before coming to this country.

The water in this area is also better to use bottled water, it is also worth washing fruits and vegetables purchased at local markets, even the teeth are brushed with mineral water, in order to avoid the emergence of various troubles in the form of intestinal diseases.

Speaking of traffic, it is worth mentioning that it defies all logic in Bolivia. It is insanely chaotic, and any rules are out of the question. So be careful, especially if you decide to drive yourself.

Real Estate

Bolivian real estate market has recently become increasingly interesting for foreigners. In this country there are a lot of proposals for the sale of real estate in the price range up to $ 50,000. For that amount you can buy a fairly large house or apartment in a major city, up to 150 square meters, or a huge plot of fertile land.

Most popular among foreign property buyers are the following provinces: Santa Cruz, Cochabamba and Beni. Despite the increased interest of foreign investors, the purchase of real estate deals are more with the locals.

Bolivian laws have no particular restrictions on the sale of real estate to foreign citizens. Those can, without any problem, take full possession of the local houses and land. In addition, buying property in Bolivia greatly simplifies the process of obtaining a residence permit in this country.

When buying a house in the countryside, be careful with the locals, who are just trying to take some small piece of land of a foreigner, and kicking them out of there is almost impossible.

Tips for the Tourist

Before arriving in Bolivia, pack different sunscreens and hats, because in this mountainous country the intensity of the sun’s rays is more than 20 times higher than at sea level. Especially careful should be near the alpine Lake Titicaca.

In Bolivia always carry a passport or other identity document, which at any time may be required by local law enforcement officers. Do not be surprised if the police decide to search your hotel room or car. This is quite normal in Bolivia, but beware of them cheating. That is why it is better to invite an outside person to the search.

If you decide to find a particular landmark without a guide, remember that the numbering of houses in Bolivia is in accordance with the order of their construction in the street, so the search for the right house can take all day.

For many tourists visiting Bolivia, the first goal is to try coca. Be careful, the local authorities will not pat you on the head for this. The least you could face is a heavy fine.

Be attentive and respectful to local residents. Take photos and video of locals only with their permission.

Visa information

It is necessary to obtain a visa to visit Bolivia. It can be applied for directly upon arrival in the country, and the visa validity will be limited to 30 days. You can apply for it in advance at the Bolivian embassy in Moscow.

To apply for a visa at the airport you must provide the following documents: passport, one photo, return tickets, proof of sufficient funds for the trip, certificate of vaccination against yellow fever, and filled out in a foreign language tourist card.

To apply for a visa in the Bolivian Embassy in Moscow, you should gather the following documents: a passport valid for at least another six months, an application form filled out in English, a color photo, a certificate of employment about income for the past year, photocopies of tickets and confirmation of hotel reservations. There are no additional fees for compulsory visa in the Consulate.

To apply for a visa to Bolivia you should apply to the Embassy of the Russian Federation at the following address: 5, Lopukhinsky n., 119034, Moscow.

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