Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. It has outlets to three oceans. It has borders with the United States, by sea with Greenland and two French islands. The state is a kingdom based on the parliamentary system.
The country consists of ten provinces and several territories. English and French are the main languages. The state is one of the richest countries with a high GDP. Oil and gas industries are well developed. The country is a leader in the production of acoustic systems.
Population 33,679,000 Canada Territory 9,984,670 sq km Located on the continent of North America Capital City of Canada Ottawa Money in Canada Dollar (CAD) Domain area .ca Country phone code 1
The fabulous country of Canada welcomes tourists from all over the world. The sights of the province of Ontario are: “Niagara Falls,” the delightful Agave Canyons, and the Pukaskua Conservation Area. Quebec City also boasts the cascade of unique waterfalls “Montmorency”, the long-standing architecture of the cathedral called “Saint Anne de Beaupre” and the lighthouse of Cape Rosier. “The Eighth Wonder of the World” is recognized as an unusually large mountain of Perse.
In the province of Nova Scotia tourists visit the nature reserves “Ot-Ter”, “Kedzhimkujik” and “Port Royale” – park of the French colonists.
The province of Golifax attracts temple architecture. Noteworthy are the church “Saint-Pierre” and the remarkable architecture of the city chapel.
Climate of Canada: it varies from temperate in the south to subarctic and arctic in the north.
Canada’s ski resorts
“Banff Banff is a resort town in Canada, built in a National Park. Picturesque cliffs, hot springs, lakes and glaciers, create an ideal environment for recreation. “Whistler” is a resort located near the ocean coast. The local snowboarding resorts are world famous and are a favorite destination for freeriders. Ontario has more than 30 preserves and 50,000 lakes and rivers. Quebec hosts several hundred tourist destinations, preserves, ski resorts and beaches. Near the city of Montreal is located Laurentia. Its ski resorts, station and trails for skiers are famous among tourists. The province operates Notre-Dame-du-Portage, a summer resort.
Terrain in Canada:: Mostly flat with mountains in the west and lowlands in the south.
Museums of Canada
The Canadian city of Vancouver is home to a large number of museums. “Museum and Planetarium”, the informative “Maritime Museum” and the Centennial Museum” are visited by thousands of visitors to the city. Quebec invites visitors to visit the “Fort Museum”, the entertaining “Wax Museum”, the art galleries and the “City Museum”. Amusing exhibits are on display at the “Shoe Museum” of the city of Toronto. There’s also the “Sports Museum.” Hockey fans will see with their own eyes the famous Stanley Cup, uniforms with the CSKA emblem and the famous hockey player Tarasov. The finest collection of art by the masters of the past and present is on display at the Musée des Beaux-Arts Montreal. The country’s “Railway Museum” displays more than a hundred railroad cars and locomotives. Documents and photographs will tell the story of the development of Canada’s railroads.
Canada has resources such as: : Iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, coal, oil, natural gas, hydropower.
The choice of hotels in Canada is great. Hotels in the country are divided into four types: for young people, families with children, quiet holidays and leisure delux for the elderly. Such hotels provide recreational programs, quality service and relaxation areas. Canadian hotels are of high world standard. The customer can choose full board or no board, very early breakfast or dinner if needed.
In Ottawa, the visitors highly rated five-star hotel Chateau Laurier Deluxe. It is centrally located on the banks of the Ride Canal. “The Delta Whistler is a four-star hotel in Whistler. Services: restaurant, swimming pool, banquet hall, business center, night club, jacuzzi, etc.
The Four Seasons hotel in Toronto has good reputation. It is estimated at 5 stars. It features excellent service. Location is in the city center.
Canada’s currency: The national currency of Canada is the Canadian dollar, which is equal to one hundred cents, a coin of exchange of the country. The Canadian dollar was introduced in 1858 to replace the Spanish real, which was the legal tender in Canada. Since that time, the Canadian dollar has been the country’s national currency.
Standard of Living
Canadians have the highest life expectancy in the world. The average life span of Canadian men is about 74 years and women live 81 years. Canada ranks sixth in terms of living standards. The country is among the best countries in the world to live in. The cities of Vancouver and Toronto are the best cities in the world. According to 2012-13 data, the average income per person in Canada was $50,970 per year. No activity in Canada is done without insurance. Insurance companies offer a long list of services: business insurance, property, jewelry, disability and more. Canada holds the record for the largest number of students in the country. Education is considered the highest quality in the world.
Canada is densely braided with a network of Coach Canada and Greyhound Canada bus lines. Buses also travel to the United States every day. A bus ticket costs $1.4. Schedules are kept with great accuracy. There are airports in the country: Vancouver, Winnipeg, Calgary, Ottawa and Edmonton. Cabs in the country are not a cheap way to travel. It costs $2.25 to board. The Montreal Metro will take you to the Underground City Mall. The ticket price is $2.75. The cities of Vancouver, Edmonton and Calgary also have a subway. Trains run throughout the country, and the railroad itself is very well developed.
Tourists will find all kinds of entertainment for all tastes in Canada. Toronto’s parks are equipped with barbecues and picnic tables. Toronto’s underground city, RATN, houses restaurants, stores, parks and even fountains. Fans of music by classical composers, are invited to the National Opera, the Ballet and the Arts Centre. Children and adults should visit the zoo in the city. The vast areas of the zoo are home to rare birds and animals. Vacationers will love the rides, water park. Canadian cities have gyms, ski trails, bike paths, indoor ice skating rinks, and hundreds of tennis courts. There are hundreds of pubs and dozens of nightclubs for nightlife enthusiasts. The most popular are the Purgatory Toronto, Phoenix Concert Theatre, and the Senator Jazz Club.
Quebec City is a thriving city in Canada with a low unemployment rate. The city’s economy is boosted by tourism, biotechnology, and industry. Quebec City is home to a strategically important commercial port. The number of residents is over 500,000.
Montreal is one of Canada’s most famous cities. It is the center of business, tourist and cultural life in the country. Features of the city: transport network of international importance. There are 1 620 693 inhabitants in the city. It is among the most comfortable cities in the world. According to UNESCO, Montreal is called a standard of design.
Toronto is a megalopolis of enormous size, a model of order and cleanliness. The city is recognized as the “economic engine” of the state. Skyscrapers, banks, offices, combined with lots of green parks and squares. The population exceeds two million people. In terms of quality of life, the metropolis is the fourth in the world.
Canada is one of the largest countries in the world, second only to Russia and crowning the North American continent. The country is a symbiosis of unspoiled nature and modern urban life: Canada has industrial areas in the south, and vast forests, full-flowing rivers, numerous lakes and mountain ranges in the north, reaching as far as the Arctic zone. Along with the capital, Ottawa, the largest metropolitan areas are Montreal, Calgary, Winnipeg and Toronto. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a strong democratic tradition. The Queen of Great Britain is recognized as head of state, and is represented by the Governor General. All power is vested in the government, headed by the Prime Minister.
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Video: Nature of Canada
Canada has an area of 9,984,670 square kilometers, making it the largest state not only in the Americas, but in the entire Western Hemisphere. The population, according to 2015 data, is about 36 million people. Canada has the longest land border on the planet with one country, 8,891 km, namely the United States of America along with Alaska. The state has access to the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. By sea, the border runs with the Danish autonomous territory of Greenland and the French islands of Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon. Canada has polar possessions in the Arctic, claims and part of the continental shelf, including the North Pole.
Jasper National Park Rideau Canal in Ottawa Toronto Lights of Vancouver at night
Maple Leaf Country, as Canada is also called, is a parliamentary federation of 3 territories and 10 provinces. One of them, Quebec, has a predominantly French-speaking population and the other, New Brunswick, has both French and English speakers. The rest of the country, with the exception of the Yukon Territory (which is also bilingual), speaks more English.
Statue of a Canadian logger Indian Lodge
The name of the country supposedly comes from the word kanata, which means “village” in the language of the Algonquin Indians. The turning point came in 1535, when two natives said the word to guide the navigator Jacques Cartier to the Indian village of Stadacona, near present-day Quebec.
Those who know Canada only superficially imagine eternal snows in which polar bears roam; Inuit hunting whales; grim loggers basking around a campfire in the impenetrable taiga to the droning accompaniment of polar wolves.
The Klondike Gold Rush
Inexperienced travelers may arrive in Canada in high summer hoping to go skiing, but they must travel thousands of miles before the snow crunches under their feet. But the view of the cold, harsh Arctic is unforgettable: Many people think of Canada and think of Gold Rush, the starving Charlie Chaplin in the far-off Yukon, nibbling on boots as a snowstorm passes through the windows of a gold rush hut.
The country’s most populous provinces are Ontario and Quebec. Many Canadians believe that the upper boundary of these regions’ forests is the beginning of the High North. Here starts the Canadian Shield, a huge glacial plateau, which stretches in a wide strip from Hudson Bay through the province of Saskatchewan and northern Manitoba to the circumpolar Northwest Territories. The Canadian Shield is a dusky land whose landscape consists of rocks, limestone, many lakes and swamps. Beyond the Canadian Shield extend vast areas of permafrost. In these snow-covered lands, on Baffin Land, is a national park with the eloquent name Auyuittuk, which translates from the Inuit language as “land that never melts. The ice shell holds untold riches: ores of non-ferrous and precious metals; huge reserves of gas, oil, and uranium. The indigenous people of the country, the Canadian Indians and the Inuit, are challenging the government for the right to use these minerals.
Canada offers its visitors such a variety of vacations that you may find it hard to decide what to enjoy. There is an endless expanse of natural beauty, a multitude of rivers and lakes, and a variety of climates. Year-round cultural activities are possible thanks to regular festivals of the peoples of the Old and New World and artistic events, in which everyone can participate. For shoppers, there are numerous stores, malls, boutiques and souvenir shops.
Quebec Winter in Canada
The territory of the country is a hilly plain. Mountain ranges run along the west and east coasts. The Canadian Cordilleras, which originate on the border with Alaska, stretch along the shores of the Pacific Ocean. Many mountains range from 2 to 2.7 kilometers in height. Along the Atlantic coast, the Appalachian Mountains are not very tall. This includes the peaks to the east of Quebec, the Shickshaw Mountains (north of the Gaspé Peninsula), and the Notre Dame Massif on the right bank of the St. Lawrence River.
The St. Lawrence River is Canada’s main waterway. It has many tributaries: the St. Maurice, the Ottawa, the Manicouagan, and several others. Being navigable, it connects the Atlantic to the Great Lakes basin. Other rivers are the Nelson, Saskatchewan, Athabasca, Churchill, Peace River, Mackenzie, Fraser, and Slave. As for lakes, not every state can boast so many. The most famous and significant of them are located on the U.S. border: Ontario, Upper, Erie and Guron. The famous Niagara Falls, one of the most powerful on Earth, are also located on the Canadian-U.S. border.
The plant world is characterized by the predominance of coniferous forests. They stretch between the two oceans, mostly south of the tundra. Of the trees, black and white spruce, pine, thuja, and larch are found. Deciduous forests are somewhat smaller, where poplar, birch, willow, and alder grow. Tundra is occupied by northern mainland Canada and island areas in the north, where shrubby willow and birch and sedge grow. Snow and ice cover Baffin Land and the Polar Islands region. They also do not melt in the summer, which, by the way, is very short.
Two polar bears in northern Canada A deer
The animal world of Canada is represented by such tundra inhabitants as the reindeer, polar hare, arctic fox, musk ox, and lemming. South of the polar zone the local fauna is more diverse. Animals found here include the gray bear, elk, snow goat, caribou, snow goat, wapiti, a deer close to red deer, big-toed sheep, as well as wolf, fox and the cougar and lynx, predators of the feline family. The family of rodents is quite numerous: chipmunk, beaver, squirrel chikari. Among birds there are many commercial species, there are nesting migratory birds. There are a lot of fish in the freshwater reservoirs.
Climate and weather
Canada’s extremely diverse climate is greatly influenced by its length and topography. The extremes of cold winters and hot summers make it continental. The country can be divided into a number of climate zones: cold in the north and warm on the Pacific coast. The cold zone includes the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the northern parts of the Labrador Peninsula and the Mackenzie River Basin. The ground here freezes very deep and snow does not melt for most 365 days. Summers are short, with almost no precipitation. Average annual temperatures are between 5 and 10 degrees with a minus sign.
Atlantic coast Summer in Canada
The farther you get from the polar latitudes, the milder the climate. In southern Canada, summers are warmer (20-25°) and winters are milder. Precipitation is heavier, at about 400 mm to 500 mm a year. Snowstorms are frequent in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River region. On the Atlantic coast, on the contrary, the cold period is milder, and summers are less warm and fogs are not uncommon. Summers are the same on the Pacific Coast, and winters are mild with rain. The only place in Canada where January temperatures do not drop below 0° remains the region adjacent to Vancouver. Precipitation is abundant in the city itself, on the order of 5,000 mm per year. The headwaters of the Yukon Peninsula have the lowest temperatures on the American continent: -60° C.
Canadian cities are not only the starting points of travel across the country, but also a combination of unusual and vibrant experiences. In a suburban cottage luxury car can peacefully coexist with an ordinary wooden canoe. A striking example of Canadian eclecticism is Montreal, a city of unique combination of North American modernism and charming Old World style: graceful old red-brick mansions perfectly coexist with ultra-modern skyscrapers.
In winter, the canal in downtown Ottawa becomes a giant skating rink.
For North Americans, Quebec’s ostentatious extravagance is a perfect example of the French way of life. The complete opposite of this old city is energetic Toronto, whose residents consider it more groomed, and where tourists can see the Canadian version of the American metropolis. The nation’s capital, Ottawa, is known for its great museums, hi-tech businesses and peculiar bureaucracy. Calgary’s sassy attitude reminds American tourists of Texas, and the nature surrounding Vancouver makes the city especially charming.
Hardly any written sources have survived to shed light on the history of Canada before European colonization. An idea of this period is given by the findings of archaeologists, which show unequivocally that Indians and Inuit have inhabited this territory since ancient times. People migrated here from Eastern Siberia and Alaska in whole groups. The population in that distant time was mainly engaged in hunting and fishing. Animism dominated among the local beliefs. Well, the first Europeans appeared here in about 1000 and it was the Vikings from Iceland who landed on the island of Newfoundland. The Icelander Leif Ericson, the Portuguese Joao Fernando Lavrador and João Vash Cortirial, the English Francis Drake and Henry Hudson, and many others pioneered the Canadian lands.
The French explorer Jacques Cartier landed on Gaspé in 1534.
In the first half of the 16th century, the French landed on the Canadian coast. On the Gaspé Peninsula, the navigator Jacques Cartier planted a cross and proclaimed the land to be the domain of the French crown. But the first to explore the North American coast from Newfoundland to Florida was the Italian navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano, in the service of the French, who coined the name “New France. But the English were also interested in the new overseas lands when they began exploring Newfoundland. The military leader and navigator Humphrey Gilbert declared it an English possession in 1583. The rivalry between the English and the French in the eighteenth century entered a sharp phase. In 1763 the Treaty of Paris was concluded. According to it New France fully fell under British sovereignty, remaining in this status until 1867.
A painting by Benjamin West The Demise of General Wolfe, depicting the death of British General James Wolfe after his victory at the Battle of the Fields of Abraham in 1759.
On July 1, 1867, the British North America Act was approved, giving rise de facto to the independent state of Dominion Canada, whose authorities gained the right to form their own government. De jure Canada remained part of Great Britain. Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland were not part of the Dominion. Canada was formed in its current borders in 1870, and Newfoundland became part of it in 1949. In 1931 the Statute of Westminster was passed, which expanded the country’s rights. It gained full independence in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act by the British Parliament. The monarch of Great Britain remains the formal head of state.
Canadian tank and soldier attack at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917
The new Constitution, which came into force in the same year, is not recognized by French-speaking Quebec, the largest province in Canada. The origins of this protest are to be found in the 1960s and 1970s, when the situation of French Canadians began to worsen. Ideas of independence began to emerge in the region, actually supported by the former metropolis, France. In 1980, a referendum on the separation of the province was held, which ended in failure for the separatists. In 1995 a second plebiscite was held, but again the majority was against secession. Thus, Quebec, where nearly 95% of the inhabitants speak and understand French, remained part of the Canadian Confederation. According to article 122 of the Constitutional Act of 1867, bilingualism was allowed in the provincial parliament as well as in the whole country.
There are 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites within Canada, as of 2015. With some of them, let’s start to get acquainted with the attractions of this distinctive country.
L’Anse Aux Meadows is a national park in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is here, in the “bay of jellyfish”, according to scientists, that the Vikings, who came from Greenland, founded the first European settlement at the end of XI century. In the fishing village of the same name on the island of Newfoundland, a smithy and eight dugouts were discovered during excavations in the 1960s.
L’Anse Aux Meadows National Park.
Nahanni National Park is located in the South Nahanni River Valley, known for Virginia Falls and the fact that there are four canyons above it. The park opened in 1976 and is located 500 kilometers from Yellowknife, the capital of the Northwest Territories, in the southern part of the Mackenzie Mountains. Nahanni Park is known for its thermal springs containing sulfur compounds. The landscape consists of tundra, mixed forests, and deposits of calcium carbonate (tufa).
Nahanni National Park
Dinosaur Provincial Park “Dynosor”. Opened in 1955, it has become popular as one of the largest repositories of dinosaur fossils on the planet. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of more than 500 giant animals that inhabited the planet during the Mesozoic era. All of them belonged to 39 different species. The unique finds have been exhibited at the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto), the Royal Tyrrell Paleontological Museum (Drumheller), as well as the Canadian Museum of Nature (Ottawa) and the American Museum of Nature (New York City). The remains of many freshwater vertebrates have also been found.
Dynosor Dinosaur Provincial Park
Guayi-Haanas National Park was established in 1988 in the northwestern part of the province of British Columbia and includes the south of Moresby Island and a number of islands southeast of it. The dominant feature of the nature reserve: the San Cristoval Mountains, whose main peak, Mount La Touche, rises 1,123 m. The park includes the village of Ninstinz, inhabited by Haida Indians. The village, located in the Haida-Guay archipelago, is home to the largest collection of totem poles, revered by these people as mythical ancestors and tribal souls. But these masterpieces of art can be lost as they are badly affected by the local humid climate and begin to rot.
Guay-Haanas National Park
Old Quebec is the historic part of Quebec City, the capital of the province of the same name. Samuel de Champlain, the founder of the first French colonies in Canada, built the Chateau-Saint-Louis, the residence of the governor and government of New France. Within Old Quebec, architecture from the nineteenth century dominates, but there are also earlier buildings from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The Quebec Fortress also survives to this day. Next to this military fortification is the Hôtel du Parlemain, the Quebec National Assembly building, where the Lieutenant-Governor of the province also sits.
The historic town of Lunenberg is the finest example of English colonial settlement in North American lands. Administratively, it is part of the province of Nova Scotia, located from the capital, Halifax, about 90 kilometers away. Before Europeans, the area was inhabited by the Mi’kmaq Indian people. The city was founded in 1753. It received its name in honor of the British monarch George II and at the same time the ruler of Brunswick-Luneburg, a duchy in historic Germany. Local attractions include the town harbor and the Lunenberg Academy, the Anglican Church and the Atlantic Fisheries Museum, and the Town House.
Historic Town of Lunenberg.
The Rideau Canal is a waterway connecting Ottawa to Kingston, a city in southern Ontario. The canal was opened in 1832, having been built in the event of a military conflict with the United States. It is the oldest operating canal on the continent and has not been interrupted since its opening. Its length is 202 km. In the summer the Rideau is put to the service of tourists whenever possible, and in the winter, when the annual Winterlude Festival is held, a giant ice rink is set up on the canal, the area of which is commensurate with 90 hockey fields.
Red Bay Whaling Station. In the XVI-XVII centuries, seasonal migrants from the Basque Country settled here in Labrador, traded in whaling. In our time, not far from the coastal harbor is a fishing village of Red Bay, named for it, as well as the local red-colored granite rocks. The remains of the former station as well as whale bones and a number of shipwrecks here are local tourist attractions.