Chile – the Republic of Chile, a state in the southwest of South America
Chile is such an amazing and diverse country that it is impossible to remain indifferent! Tectonic processes (the earth is still shaking here at times) and melting ice have formed lakes from which it is impossible to take your eyes off. Climb to 4 thousand meters in Tatio, the valley of geysers, where hot mineral springs gush forth, and be sure to swim in them. Descend into the Valley of the Moon, where for thousands of years two immortal sculptors – Wind and Time – have created a stunning exhibition of natural sculptures. If you know how to ski, have an unforgettable experience: Chile firmly holds first place for the number of ski slopes in South America.
The Republic of Chile is a state located in the southwest of South America, occupies an area of 757 thousand square kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes. Its population is 17.5 million. Spanish is the official language. Currency is Chilean peso (CLP). 100 CLP = $CLP:USD:100:2. Time zone UTC-4, local time is 7 hours behind Moscow time. Mains voltage 220 V at 50 Hz, socket types C, L. Phone country code +56. Internet domain .cl.
A short history.
Before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the north of Chile was developed by the Inca civilization, while the south and central parts were inhabited by other indigenous tribes. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, a decisive victory over the Spanish was achieved by 1818. In the Pacific War, Chile captured parts of Peru and Bolivia, and retained its northern regions. Chile then underwent the 17-year military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990), who was highly criticized in the world for his methods. After his departure, Patricio Aylwin came to power, supporting free policies. Currently, Chile has a relatively high GDP compared to other Latin American countries, but there is still a problem of unequal distribution of wealth, about 10% of the people own 42% of the wealth of the entire country.
Because Chile stretches quite a bit from north to south, virtually along the entire continent, the country’s climate is extremely varied and includes a significant range of weather patterns. There are desert tropics in the north, glaciers and alpine tundra in the east and southeast, humid subtropics in the Easter Island area, an oceanic climate in the south, and a Mediterranean climate in central Chile. The best time to visit the country depends on the specific region where tourists are going. In the north the temperature from December to March is within +26 degrees, Easter Island is best visited in the summer when the thermometer column holds around +22 … +24 degrees. The central part of the country is also preferable in the summer, where the temperature rises to +22 degrees. The highlands are quite cold all year round and the temperature may not exceed +3 degrees in summer and drop to -27 degrees in winter.
Visa and customs regulations
Citizens of Russia and Ukraine do not need a visa to visit Chile if the period of stay in the country does not exceed 90 days. Customs regulations comply with generally accepted norms. It is forbidden to take out items of historical, artistic and archaeological value without special permission.
How to get there
There are no direct flights from Russia to Chile. You can use connecting flights of European carriers. Air France flies from Moscow to Santiago via Paris, but the most economical way is to fly to Madrid and then Iberia flights Madrid-Santiago.
Between distant cities, it is more convenient to use flights or a ferry. Some bus companies offer intercity transportation in a fairly modern and comfortable buses. Rail services are provided by a transportation system (Sistema Estatal de Ferrocariles). Trains run from Santiago to Temuco at a reasonable price, depending on the type of car. In the cities, you can use both public transportation and cabs, which can be recognized by the bright black-and-yellow color combination.
Cities and resorts
The most interesting
It takes 4,630 kilometers to cross this country from north to south. And it’s only 360 kilometers from the Argentine border to the Pacific coast. You’ll cross several climatic belts, from the desert tropics in the north, where the Atacama desert spreads, to the temperate oceanic where the South American continent ends at Cape Horn. Arable land coexists here with snow-covered mountain spurs and active volcanoes on one side, and precipitous shores that crash into the ocean waves on the other.
The calling card of any country is, of course, the capital. And Santiago is no exception. More than five million people live here – a third of Chile’s population. Despite this, the city is clean, probably because it rarely rains, turning the dust into mud. During the day can be a little stuffy – the city is surrounded by the ridge of the Andes, and the wind cannot blow the exhaust gases out of the valley. The pedestrianized streets near the central square and the tidy, cozy subway make a good impression. Santiago is also a city of marvelous street sculptures and monuments, couples kissing in front of everyone, and… stray dogs, which seem to be as numerous as the capital’s human population. You’ll be lucky in Santiago if you speak Spanish. If you speak English, you’re in trouble: few people will understand you, even in the expensive hotels. There are more serious things: you can fall victim to fraud (most often currency exchange), or even be robbed in broad daylight in the city center, right at the entrance to a five-star hotel! And the police, as a rule, are not nearby. (In the countryside is another matter, such things are unthinkable there because they are immoral!) The experts also advise to get rid of the bad (and overhead) habit of smoking and drinking alcohol in the streets, and for Spanish speakers to try to talk to Chileans about political issues.
In the south of Chile, where you can feel the icy breath of Antarctica behind the Drake Passage, you will be fascinated by fjords, glaciers, and icebergs for a long time. In the town of Punta Arenas, in the central square there is a monument to the most famous of the Portuguese – Fernand Magellan. It was his name given to the strait, on the shores of which the city is located. It took 38 days for Magellan’s expedition in the XVI century to get from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean by water. Then, as always, it was cold here, the local Indians warmed themselves by the fires. Seeing the coast flooded with fire, Magellan decided that it was lava pouring out, and christened the open land Fiery. The locals, by the way, still call themselves Magellanic. We will come back to the monument to the great navigator.
Winter forced Magellan’s expedition to stop for the winter on the coast of the Strait. The small Spaniards encountered tall and large Indians who inhabited the land. Therefore, Magellan named the mainland area Patagonia – “big feet. So, at the foot of Magellan’s monument in Punta Arenas sits a sculpture of a native Patagonian with a very large foot. There is a belief that if you touch this foot, you will return to Chile some time later. Whether this belief works or not is unknown, but for some reason the foot of the Patagonian shines like a mirror.
It is impossible, of course, to come to Chile and not visit Easter Island. A comfortable flight ends with a landing on an unusually high-quality runway for a small island. It is a kind of memory of NASA’s space program: until recently it was a backup for the U.S. shuttles. True, there are only three-star hotels on the island and the only good road is the central one, it is better not to turn to the rest. But everything is outweighed by an unforgettable meeting with stone statues carved by the ancient inhabitants of the island!
By the way, about the Chilean islands. At one time Mas-a-Tierra, as fate would have it, was the sailor Alexander Selkirk. He lived there for a long time, was later rescued and served Daniel Defoe as the prototype of one of the most famous literary characters – Robinson Crusoe. Now the island itself bears his name.
Chile has many hotels throughout the country, the most common chains being the Sheraton, Kempinsky, Ritz, Marriott, Hyatt and Holiday Inn. There is a good selection of different types of accommodations at ski resorts.
Traditional Chilean cuisine reflects the geographical diversity of the country, each region has its own unique recipes for cooking. Chile is famous for the world’s tastiest seafood, which is served in numerous restaurants; crabs and locos are especially tasty. Chileans also recognize meat and chickens, preparing excellent dishes: beef with fried eggs and potatoes lomo a la pobre, curanto soup from fish or pork, empanadas pies. Chile is famous for its excellent quality wines.
From Chile come painted and carved woodwork, ceramics, musical instruments, bronze and silver jewelry, and glassware. In the markets and small shops, bargaining is appropriate. The largest markets are in Santiago and Pueblito los Dominicos, where you can buy quality copperware, silver and crystal jewelry, Indian handicrafts, woolen clothing, and more.
Like most major cities in South America, Santiago suffers from high rates of pickpocketing and robbery. It is best to refrain from displaying expensive jewelry and gadgets in the city, and in crowded areas, keep an eye on your belongings. It is better to use small bills to pay, so as not to have problems with change, this type of fraud is common. It is best not to take photos of warships, buildings and people, so as not to cause problems, otherwise the police have the right to detain.
Chile – the Republic of Chile, a state in the southwest of South America
The Republic of Chile (Spanish: República de Chile ) is a state in the southwestern part of South America, extending practically along the meridians of a long narrow strip between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes from the Atacama Desert (17°) to Cape Frode (54° S.).
Chile borders Peru in the north, Bolivia in the northeast, and Argentina in the east.
Administratively, Chile also includes Easter Island in the South Pacific Ocean.
Its territory is 756,950 km2 (not including Easter Island – 163,6 km2 ). Chile is located in the southern part of the Andes, in the area of the largest altitudinal gradients in the world. Its highest point is Mount Ojos del Salado (6880 m).
Climate of Chile
Because of the vast extent of the country, Chile has a climate that varies from tropical in the north to temperate oceanic in the south. The climate also changes as you move eastward from the ocean into the Andes . As you move east, the climate becomes drier, more continental; further up into the Andes, the climate becomes characteristic of mountain systems.
History of Chile
The territory of Chile was inhabited by an indigenous population about 13,000 years ago. The first settlers of Chile were the nomadic Mapuche Indians. The Inca states reached their greatest power . The 10th Inca Tupac Yapanki , who ruled from 1471, subjugated practically the entire Indian population in the north of the country and under his rule were built several combat forts.
The first European to set foot on Chilean soil was Ferdinand Magellan (the Strait of Magellan is named after him). In 1520. Magellan landed in what is now Punta Arenas.
The conquistadors explored the new lands with the main goal of searching for gold. Most of the time there was little resistance from the local population, so the conquistadors moved inland, making settlements along the way, including the future capital, Santiago. The real war began when the Europeans and the Mapuche Indians met. The war continued with varying success and, with brief periods of truce, was fought for over three hundred years. Even in the year 2000 the Mapuche Indians took violent actions (seizures of institutions) against the Chilean government.
During Napoleon Bonaparte’s control of Spain (from 1808), Chile created a Government Junta (Junta de Gobierno) loyal to the king, which led to civil war. In 1812, Chileans around the dictatorial leadership drafted a constitution that provided for the independence of Chile under the formal rule of the Spanish king. After a brief period of reconquista, Chile’s independence from Spain was proclaimed on February 12, 1818 .
In 1969, a pro-communist bloc led by Salvador Allende won elections democratically. With active U.S. intervention, a military coup took place in 1973. Dictator Augusto Pinochet came to power. The final dismantling of the dictatorship occurred only in 1990.
Features of Chile
Language : Spanish
Currency : The monetary unit is the Chilean peso, equal to 100 centesimo. Bills of 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, 10000 pesos and coins of 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 pesos are in circulation.
In central areas, major stores and hotels accept credit cards of the world’s leading systems and traveler’s checks, in the province it is often problematic.
Electricity: Chile uses 220 volts at 50 Hz. The outlets are European and Italian.
Transportation : Chile is one of the Latin American countries with the highest quality roads, as well as a country with an extensive rail network and good air service.
Population : Chile has a population of more than 13.5 million people. Ethnicity: European (Spanish, Italian, and German) descendants in 25%, mestizos in 70%, Indians (a small group of Araucana live mostly in the south, between Concepción and Puerto Montt; the Aymara live in the extreme north) in 3%. The Rapa Nui people of Easter Island are also a special group.
National cuisine: Chile is one of the most Europeanized countries on the continent. There are, of course, also local specialties. For example, “curanto”, common in the south of the country and on Easter Island. It can be conventionally called a kind of shashlik – earthen kebab. The meat is placed under the ground, on the heated stones, and over it a fire and the resulting fire coals are well seasoned meat is cooked. Popular and “empanadas” are the local patties, which can be filled with a variety of meat, olives and tuna. Another typical dish is sea urchin soup. Many consider Chile to be the country with the most delicious seafood (“mariscos”), which can be enjoyed at the many eateries throughout the country. The Chilean wines are extremely appreciated because the soil and climate are ideal for the grapevine. While connoisseurs in Europe keep track of the “good” years when the wine tastes the best, in Chile there are hardly any “bad” years for the grapes.
Tipping: Tipping is usually 10% of the bill, often already included in the total. Cab drivers do not require a tip, but it is advisable to round up the fare for convenience. In markets and private stores you can bargain.
Customs Regulations: The following items are prohibited for import: unprocessed fruits and vegetables, seeds, grains, products of animal origin; firearms, ammunition or explosives; prohibited drugs. Duty free import of any second-hand personal items is permitted including television, radio and video equipment, portable electronic computers and cigarettes – up to 400 pieces, or tobacco – 500 grams, or cigars – up to 50 pieces, alcoholic beverages – up to 2.5 liters. Allowed also the purchase of goods for non-commercial purposes in the Duty-Free store at the airport up to $ 500 USD. Subject to declaring at entry into the country: home furniture, tableware, linen products (bed linen), paintings and jewelry, new appliances and spare parts for it, all new goods or goods imported for commercial purposes. It is forbidden to export without special permission items and things of historical, artistic or archaeological value, as well as weapons and rare species of flora and fauna. Permission is granted to export products made of wool and leather, jewelry, souvenirs for personal needs, and you must present a receipt of the store where you bought these items. Import and export of currency is not limited, but is subject to declaration.
Attractions in Chile
As of January 18, 2011 the citizens of Russia and Chile may enter, exit, transit and stay in the territory of another country without visas for up to 90 days during each period of 180 days from the date of their first entry.
The Embassy of Chile in Russia : Moscow, Denezhny per. Phone: (095) 241-01-45, 241-04-14, 241-10-34, 241-43-11 Fax: (095) 241-68-67 Hours of work: Daily, from 10:00 to 13:00.
Russian Embassy in Chile : Avenida Cristobal Colon, 4152, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile Telephone: (8-10-562) 208-85-32 Opening hours: Monday and Friday from 9:00 to 12:00, Wednesday from 15:00 to 18:45
Useful information about Chile
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