Dominica (Commonwealth of Dominica)
It is a state in the eastern part of the West Indies, on the island of the same name in the Lesser Antilles. Its territory is 790 km2 . Population – 81 thousand ( in 1988), mainly blacks and mulattoes. Official language is English, but the main part of the population speaks local Creole (on the basis of French). The dominant religion is catholic. The territorial division is divided into ten parishes. The capital is Roso (16.8 thousand people in 1988).
Dominica was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1493 The French founded the first European settlement on the island in 1632. Dominica was alternately owned by France and England. Under the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, the island passed to Britain, Europeans created a plantation economy on the island, based on slave labor (slavery was abolished in 1838). From 1871 to 1940 Dominica was part of the United States. Dominica was part of the Leeward Islands colony, in 1940-56 – of the colony of the Leeward Islands, in 1958-62 – of the Federation of the West Indies. On March 1, 1967 the country received the status of the “associated state with Great Britain”, which is in charge of its internal affairs. Since 3.XI 1978 – independent republic. The policies of Dominica’s first government, formed by the leader of the Labor Party of Dominica P. John were characterized by an aggressive attack on the United States. It was characterized by an attack on workers’ rights (strikes by state employees, limiting press freedom, etc. were prohibited, concessions to foreign capital at the expense of national interests, and adjusting relations with reactionary regimes (including the racist South Africa). It led to the political crisis of May – June 1979 and the defeat of Labor in the 1980 elections. The government of the right wing Freedom Party of Dominica, in power since July 1980, is one of the most conservative in the West Indies. Its domestic policy is aimed at encouraging private entrepreneurship and attracting wide foreign capital. On the international scene, Dominica pursues a course of close cooperation with the United States. For example, it was the message sent on behalf of the member countries of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) by Dominica’s head of government, M.Y. Charles (who was then chairman of the OECS), to the US government that led to the American invasion of Grenada in October 1983. The Dominican government welcomed R. Reagan’s “Caribbean Initiative,” while at the same time expressing its disappointment with the size of the funds allocated to the Caribbean.
Dominica is a member of the OAS, Caribbean Community, OECS; is an observer in the Non-Aligned Movement.
State and civic builder
Dominica is a republic. It is a member of the Commonwealth, led by Great Britain. The current constitution was adopted in 1978. The head of state is president (from December 1983 – C. Senyore), elected for 5 years by the House of Assembly. Legislative power belongs to the House of Assembly (unicameral parliament), consisting of 21 deputies, elected by the people for 5 years, and 10 appointed senators. Executive power is exercised by the government headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the President from among the deputies of the House of Assembly. The Prime Minister is M. Yu. Charles (reelected for the 2nd term in July 1985).
Political parties and social organizations. Freedom Party of Dominica, founded in 1971, is a right-wing bourgeois party. The Labor Party of Dominica, which has ruled since 1980, was formed in 1985 by the merger of the party of the same name with the United Labor Party of Dominica. It has five seats in the House of Assembly. Alliance Liberation Movement of Dominica was founded in 1979.
The largest trade union, the United Union of Laborers of Dominica, was founded in 1960. It has approximately 5,000 members.
Dominica is an underdeveloped agrarian country, one of the poorest in the West Indies. The economy is based on farming, which employs about 60% of the labor force. The economy is based on agriculture, which employs about 60% of the labor force, and tourism. Foreign capital (mainly American and English) holds key positions in agriculture and forestry, mining, manufacturing industries. The country is highly dependent on foreign financial aid (mainly from Great Britain, Canada, and the United States). In early 1980s the government managed to somewhat increase the pace of economic development, reduce unemployment and slow down inflation – mainly due to large loans from the IMF and other foreign creditors.
Agriculture. Agriculture accounts for 42% of GDP (1986). Most cultivated land is occupied by plantations of bananas (production – 72.8 thousand tons in 1988) and citrus fruits (14 thousand tons). Avocados, coffee, mango, coconuts, cocoa beans and vanilla are also grown. Cattle breeding and fishery also developed a little. More than 40 percent of the country is covered by forests, where foreign companies carry out felling.
Industry. It gives 7.5% of GDP (1986) and is mainly represented by the processing of agricultural raw materials. Produced juices, essential oils, copra, rum, soft drinks, canned fruit, cigars. Pumice (about 110 thousand tons a year) and limestone are mined. Installed capacity of power plants general use-7 thousand kW.
Transportation . The length of roads is 752 km. In 1983 a deep-water harbor was put into operation in the main port of the country – Roseau. International airport in Roseau was extended.
Foreign trade . In 1987, exports were $47.9 million (bananas – about 2 /z of all exports, citrus fruits and vegetables, juices, essential oils), imports – $66.7 million (equipment, industrial goods, vehicles, food). The trade deficit is mainly covered by foreign tourism and financial aid. Main foreign trade partners – Great Britain, USA, Canada, Carnb.
Finances . The currency unit is the Eastern Caribbean dollar. U.S. $2.7-Eastern Caribbean dollars to $1. U.S. (December 1988 .). The country’s foreign debt in 1988 was $69.3 million.
Situation of Workers . According to official figures, the unemployment rate in 1989 was 10% of the active population
There are over 13,000 pupils in elementary schools and over 7,000 in high schools. Several periodicals are published, including a weekly newspaper “New Chronicle” (founded in 1909, circulation 25,000), and others. There are three radio stations,
Dominica, a state in the West Indies on an island of the same name in the middle of the Leeward Islands, between Guadeloupe in the north and Martinique in the south. The area is 790 sq.km. and the capital is the city of Roseau.
Dominica. The capital is Roseau. Population: 74,000 (1998). Density of population – 98 people per square kilometer. Urban population – 33%, rural – 67%. The area is 790 sq km. The highest point is Volcano Diabloten (1447 m). State languages: English, French, Patois. Dominant religion: Catholicism. The administrative-territorial division consists of 10 parishes. Currency unit: Eastern Caribbean dollar = 100 cents. National holiday: Independence Day – November 3. The national anthem: “Island of Beauty.”
Flag of Dominica
On the map of the West Indies.
Nature. In the central part of the island there is a large extinct volcano Diabloten 1447 m high. Its slopes are highly dissected, which predetermined the sinuous configuration of the road network and fragmented land holdings. In the southern part of the island there is an active Boyling Lake geyser. Much of the island is covered with dense rainforest, which is protected in parks and forest reserves. Rivers, waterfalls, small lakes and hot springs provide fresh water. Dominica’s small beaches are covered with black volcanic ash. The climate is tropical, hot and humid. Average monthly temperatures range from 28° C in September to 25° C in February. The average annual rainfall reaches 2,000 mm in Roseau and 4,700 mm in Shoford, located 150 m above sea level. Tropical storms often pass over the island causing major damage. Population. In 1998 the population was about 74,000, mostly of African origin. About 1,700 Carib Indians live on the Salibia Reservation on the central east coast. Despite a high birth rate and high life expectancy (77 years), the population growth rate is low due to increased emigration to other West Indies islands and the United Kingdom in the 1990s. 80% of Dominicans are Catholic, the rest are Protestants. English is the official language, but most people speak the local Patois, a French based language. System of Government. Under the Constitution of 1978 the head of state is a president, elected by parliament for 5 years. Legislative power is exercised by unicameral parliament – the House of Assembly consisting of 30 members. Twenty-one of them are elected by secret ballot, the rest are appointed. The president appoints the leader of the majority party as prime minister and approves ministerial nominees. Parliamentary elections must be held every five years, but the prime minister can also call early elections. Dominica is divided into 10 parishes, which are governed by democratically elected assemblies. The larger towns elect councils. Dominica’s judicial system is based on English common law and is subject to the Court of Appeals, which is the same for all the states of the Naval Islands. There are three main political parties: the United Workers’ Party of Dominica (ULDP), the Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), and the Dominica Labour Party (MLP). The DUP and Prime Minister Eugenia Charles governed the country from 1980 to 1995. In June 1995, the DUP won the election and its leader, Edison James, became prime minister. Economy. In the 1990s Dominica’s economy was still dominated by the agricultural sector, although tourism and manufacturing had begun to develop in the preceding decades. In 1995 the GDP was estimated at $210 million, or about $2840 per capita. 2,840 dollars per capita. Despite the dependence of the agricultural sector on the climate factor, in general its annual growth rate in 1986-1995 exceeded 5%. The main export item – bananas, which give approx. 50 percent of the receipts, followed by soap (25 percent). Grapefruits, limes and lime juice, cocoa, oranges and coconut products are also exported. The country only partially satisfies its food needs; most of it is imported. Engineering products, automobiles, chemicals and petroleum products, and most consumer goods are also imported. Food accounts for 20% of the value of imports, while petroleum products account for 10%.
The main trading partners are the United States and Great Britain. History. In the 14th century the Arawaks, who lived on the island of Dominica, were displaced by the Caribs, who came from South America. Christopher Columbus first saw the island on Sunday, November 3, 1493. Soon there was a power struggle between the Spaniards, French, English and Caribs over the island. In 1547 the king of Spain gave the inhabitants of San Juan, Puerto Rico, permission to enslave the Caribs. By 1633 the French had taken possession of part of the island, but in 1640 the Caribs plundered all the villages. In 1748 Dominica was ceded to the Caribs, but French merchants joined the Caribs in establishing small factories and plantations using the labor of African slaves. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Dominica was given to the British, who allowed the Caribs to live in the interior of the island. In 1764 the island was divided into sectors, in one of which the Caribs were given a reservation of 94 hectares of marginal land. The remaining sectors were sold in London, but the buyers could not take possession of the property because the Caribs, with the help of runaway slaves, put up armed resistance to the British. While the British fought the Americans in the War of Independence, the French easily seized Dominica in 1778. By the Treaty of Paris in 1783 the island was returned to the British. The French in 1795 and 1805 made attempts to recapture the island. Dominica in 1815 was ceded irrevocably to Great Britain under the Treaty of Vienna. After the abolition of slavery in 1833, Dominica became the only British colony in the West Indies, whose legislature was elected by the local population. However, the policies of the colonial administration were detrimental to the British landowners, who in 1865 succeeded in having the metropolitan government replace the elected legislature with an Assembly dominated by appointed deputies. In 1871 Dominica became part of the British colony of the Leeward Islands, and in 1940 the colony of the Windward Islands. From 1958 to 1962 Dominica was a member of the West Indies Federation, and in 1967 became an “associated state. On November 3, 1978, as a result of the rise of a national liberation movement led by the PLD, Dominica was proclaimed an independent state. The PLD government proved unpopular and was forced to resign in 1979. In the July 1980 elections, the SDA won an impressive victory and its leader, Eugenia Charles, became the first female prime minister in the Caribbean. Her party won the majority of seats in the 1985 and 1990 parliamentary elections, and she led the government for a total of 15 years. This government is credited with distributing land to small landowners and diversifying the economy. Charles prevented several coup attempts, worked closely with the U.S. to resolve a number of political problems, notably the intervention in Grenada in 1983, and sought to establish closer economic and political ties between Dominica and the neighboring states of the West Indies. In the June 1995 elections, the PPRD won, forming a government headed by Edison James. In the same year, Dominica’s infrastructure and banana plantations were hit hard by Hurricanes Lewis and Marilyn, and the new government took steps to revitalize the economy. In May 1997, the World Trade Organization eliminated the EU’s special quota for bananas from the Caribbean, severely damaging Dominica’s economy by undermining its most important export item.
Collier’s Encyclopedia. – Open Society . 2000 .
See what “DOMINICA” is in other dictionaries:
Dominica – The Commonwealth of Dominica, a state on the island of the same name in the Lesser Antilles. The island was discovered by Columbus in 1493, on a Sunday, and named Dominica (Latin dominica Sunday, Sunday). Geographical names of the world: Toponymic… … Geographical Encyclopedia
Dominica – Dominica. A moist tropical forest on the slopes of the Diabloten volcano. DOMINICA (Commonwealth of Dominica), a state on the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea. The area is 790 sq.km. Its population is of 73.9 thousand Dominicans (mostly blacks and mulattoes). Official … Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary
DOMINICA, (Commonwealth of Dominica), a state on the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea. The area is 790 sq. km. The population is 73.9 thousand people, Dominicans (mostly blacks and mulattoes). The official language is English. The believers are generally Catholics. Republic. Dominica is a member of the… … Modern Encyclopedia
Dominica – I (Dominica), a volcanic island in the Leeward Islands group of the Lesser Antilles archipelago. II Commonwealth of Dominica, state on an island of the same name in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea…. … Encyclopedic Dictionary
Dominica – w God (servant, slave) (Latin). 21 (8) January – Venerable Domnica. October 25 (12) – Martyr Domnica. Angel’s Day. Directory of names and names. 2010. Dominika Russian female name Dictionary of personal names and patronymics (with a calendar of names). I. Mostitsky … Dictionary of Personal Names
DOMINICA – The Commonwealth of Dominica, a state on the island of the same name, the M. Antilles, in the Caribbean. 790 sq. km2. Population 73.9 thousand (1993), mainly Dominicans. English is the official language. Most… … Big Encyclopedic Dictionary
Dominica – noun, number of synonyms: 3 – name (1104) – island (218) – country (281) ASIS Dictionary of Synonyms. V.N. Trishin … Dictionary of Synonyms
Dominica, Commonwealth of Dominica, a state in Central America. America, on the island of the same name in the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. 790 sq. km². Pop. 70 t. ence (1982). City of Roseau (21 t.m. with suburbs, 1981). Before the conquest of … Encyclopedic Dictionary of Demographics
Dominica, a British island in the Nautical Group in eastern India, 16° N. lat. from Greenwich, 752 sq. ver. with numerous volcanoes and hot sourdough springs. Population 35 tons (1902), mainly French Creoles. To the north of Va. Portsmouth–Military Encyclopedia
Dominica – Not to be confused with the Dominican Republic. Commonwealth of Dominica Commonwealth of Dominica … Wikipedia