All about Germany – what to do for a tourist and a little history
For tourism or for business, Germany is perfect! Let’s try to tell everything about its modern history , where to go, what to see, what sights ️ there are in Germany, German food, culture, holidays and much more
Today we will talk about one of the most developed countries in central Europe and the world as a whole – Germany . Well TAM has prepared detailed information concerning its location, climate, peculiarities of economic development and much more. Let’s start without long introductions!
History of the formation of the state of Germany
From time immemorial, the territory of modern Germany was inhabited only by barbarians. Many times the Romans tried to conquer them, but succeeded very rarely. In the face of the enemy, the local tribes created alliances and together repelled the raids of foreigners. After a while, the Roman Empire disappeared from the face of the earth, and the lands of the barbarians went to Charlemagne. After his death, however, the state split again.
At the dawn of the 2nd millennium, the local ruler united the tribes and called them the Holy Roman Empire
The Teutonic Order and the Order of the Swordsmen, which attacked the principality of Lithuania, emerged on German territory at one time. In the 16th century the power experienced another disintegration. In this state it existed until 1862, when Otto von Bismarck was appointed minister-chairman of Prussia. In the 20th century the country organized two world wars. It lost both, resulting in its fragmentation into the GDR and the FRG. Only after the collapse of the Soviet Union did the country unite again. It exists in this territorial framework to this day.
General information about the country
The Federal Republic of Germany is located in central Europe. The country shares its borders with 10 countries, including: Denmark to the north; the Czech Republic and Poland to the east; Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Luxembourg to the west. But there are no neighbors to the north. There are only the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. They have a couple of islands, which also belong to Germany. In general, the geographical position can be characterized as very good.
The country is located very conveniently, in the central part of Europe. A temperate climate belt gives an excellent climate without anomalies and natural disasters. Winters are warm and summers are not very hot. Perfect.
The estimated population is 82,175,684, which is the second highest in Europe and sixteenth highest in the world. Given the small size of the country (357,408.74 km²), the fact that the country ranks 36th in the world in terms of population density is not at all surprising.
Form of government
By its system of government, Germany is a federal state with 16 federal states. The head of state since 2005 is one of the few women politicians Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel.
The majority of the population (65%) is Christian. Catholicism, Christianity and Protestantism are also practiced in the country. But these religions are not as widespread and have a local character.
Until 1999, the currency in the country was the German mark. But after the country joined the Eurozone, it was decided to switch to the euro. For another 3 years, the mark existed as a currency subordinate to the euro. And only in 2002, they were completely out of use. And the euro exchange rate to date against the ruble is about 1 to 70.
Country telephone code
Emergency telephone numbers
If you are planning to visit Germany, you won’t be at a loss for choice. This is a modern, developed country with a rich culture and excellent police forces. So tourists can only be afraid of hamsters and petty pickpockets. By the way, the destruction of the first are punishable by law. The second is better to avoid.
But just in case every tourist before the trip is better to learn a few numbers:
- Police – 110;
- Ambulance and firefighters – 112;
- Information service in Russian (inside the country): (0190) 87-22-50.
Also in large cities you can easily find a telephone kiosk with a telephone directory, so that you won’t have any problems with understanding.
Features of life of the Germans
It is worth admitting that life in this developed country is very expensive. In Russian money. But the fact that the salaries there are an order of magnitude higher than in our country. But if we talk in general, the prices of products here are about the same as in Russia. But the prices for services are several times higher than in Russia. For example, it costs 10 to 50 euros to get a haircut. And a ride on public transport costs 2.5 euros. This is incomparable with our 20 rubles.
Probably because of such prices Germans are not such open and good-natured people as, for example, Czechs or Poles. The most appropriate word to describe a typical German is reserved. They are discreetly friendly, discreetly helpful. German will not tell you the story of his family up to the 7th degree in detail. But he will explain in detail and clearly explain how to get to this or that place if you are lost. Another word that suits Germans is pragmatism. It gives the impression that these people do not waste a second of their life for recreation or celebrations (of course, this is wrong, the Germans know how to rest better than the Russians). It’s not likely that you’ll find a single piece of dirt or a cigarette butt on the ground walking the quiet streets of Dresden. It is very clean, you could say sterile. And this is no joke.
You can easily get a fine of 50 euros for throwing out a cigarette butt.
Germans are very fond of ordnung (order). This pedantry has helped Germans grow into a highly developed country, which nevertheless does not forget its roots. Every major city has a historical center, which holds a piece of the past. To visit them is the same as going back in time.
Best climate for tourists
Germany is a country open to tourism. It can vacation all year round, the choice of season depends more on the type of holidays and preferences. Most tourists come here between May and September. Prices at this time skyrocket, the streets are jammed, and tourists abound. But summer Germany is worth seeing: most days are sunny, people relax in the open air, towns and villages come alive in the evening through festivals and celebrations. The atmosphere is indescribable and well worth paying for it. The weather is often very warm with the thermometer rarely falling below 20 degrees Celsius. It is ideal for hiking or biking.
If you like winter sports and outdoor activities, the best time to go is after the New Year.
At this time, the ski resorts are in full swing. They continue to operate actively until March, when the snow begins to melt. However, take into account that the daylight hours are 6-8 hours, but the average temperature is very comfortable – just below zero. In the intervening seasons, spring or fall, the country has a rest from the tourists. No, they do not disappear altogether, just a little less.
Berlin – the heart of Germany
The largest city of the country, its capital is Berlin. In terms of population of the cities of the European Union is second only to London. It is a modern and constantly evolving metropolis, which is the cultural and economic center of the European Union.
After World War II the city was divided into western and eastern parts by the wall. Its length was about 160 km. But in 1989 it was destroyed and the city was reunited again.
In addition to Berlin in the country can be identified with a dozen large cities, which is surprising for a medium-sized country. Among them:
- Hamburg – 1.8 million people.
- Munich – 1.45 million people.
- Cologne – 1 million people.
- Frankfurt am Main – 730 thousand people.
- Stuttgart – 620 thousand people.
- Dusseldorf – 610 thousand people.
- Dortmund – 585 thousand people
- Essen – 580 thousand people.
- Leipzig – 560 thousand people.
- Bremen – 557 thousand people.
Where to go on vacation first
In Germany, every city is unique and keeps a piece of history. But people can not go broke, and everyone has a different budget for travel. Well TAM picked up for you 5 cities in the country, where you need to go first.
Undoubtedly, the capital should be visited first. This city, which keeps the history of the country, is visited by hundreds of thousands of tourists every year. History is hidden not only in its many museums and churches, but also in the architecture of the city. Some parts of Berlin seem to have been plucked straight out of a fairytale world of Harry Potter or Alice in Wonderland. It depends on your imagination.
The second most important city in Germany. It is more for those who like calm and quiet rest. It is better to begin the acquaintance with the historical part of town, which is simply amazing. Basilica of St. Mary’s Cathedral and the Church of St. Peter are the landmarks of the city. Fans of automobiles and all things four-wheeled should visit the BMW Museum. If you visit Munich in the fall, check out the annual Oktoberfest beer festival. The atmosphere and beer there is top-notch.
The magnificent Frankfurt am Main seems to be known by everyone, right down to the indigenous tribes of South Africa. The city surprisingly manages to combine modernist malls with their fast-paced lifestyle and quiet neighborhoods in the historic center with classic fairy-tale architecture. Many tourists come here for this contrast.
It was founded in 786 by Charlemagne. Since then, many buildings have survived that are worth seeing with your own eyes. The city can be visited if only to look at the monument famous all over the world in the story of the Town Musicians of Bremen.
The city is located in Lower Saxony. It is known for the fact that it constantly hosts large trade fairs. Modernity and history are very harmoniously intertwined in the architecture of this city, allowing you to observe several styles of architecture at once.
The most popular kinds of recreation
In addition to conventional tourism, in Germany you can relax in other ways. Among them are the following:
The island of Rügen delights with its long clean beaches and beautiful nature. You can also sunbathe on Binz. And if you want to be in touch with nature, you can visit the beach on the island of Sylt, away from the hustle and bustle of the world. Also for tourists all year round there is a complex called Dunan Terme.
Ski resort in Germany is very developed and popular. Among all resorts are several.On the Zuppipe mountain is located ski resort Garmisch-Partenkirchen .
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, the only one in the whole country, was included in the popular top of the Alpine resorts “Best of the Alps”.
A busy life in this resort does not let you get bored for a minute. The second most popular resort is called Berchtesgaden. It consists of 6 small complexes, also located in the Alps. Suitable more for aesthetes, because the landscapes here are such that they moved to the Alps from the fairy tale world. Coming here, you can admire the mass of mountain waterfalls. The cherry on the cake is a beautiful view of the Konigsee Lake. And the Alps themselves create the right flavor! Worthy of attention and the ski resort Obersdorf. When you come here to rest, you can absolutely accidentally get to the world championship, and in the pub to meet an idol athlete. The length of all the slopes is more than 44 kilometers. There is also a large entertainment center, where you can find a large number of restaurants, spas and clubs.
The Germans are fun-loving, helpful and friendly people. Therefore, for many tourists visiting local festivals is one of the favorite kinds of tourism. Festivals in Germany are held for all tastes and colors: music, movies, carnivals, etc. Despite conventional wisdom, Germans love and know how to have fun. The largest film festival in Europe is Berlinale . And the Germans celebrate the arrival of spring with a festival of fireworks called “Rhine in flames. And, of course, it is impossible not to mention the autumn beer festival “Oktoberfest”. where every Russian person dreams to go.
And if the beaches, similar to German, can be found, for example, in Italy in Sicily, and go skiing on the slopes of Switzerland, the festivals – a truly German entertainment, which has no analogues in the world.
Where better to stay a tourist
The question is quite complicated. It depends more on the travel budget and comfort needs. If in your past life you were a Spartan, in the summer you can generally sleep on the ground, putting your fist under your head. But seriously, in the summer period for tourists traveling by car and the truth is very common to rest in campsites with tents. It is not so comfortable, but it is free.
Those who are not accustomed to live in tents can rent a hotel with 2 or 3 stars. Spa salon, of course, will not be, but a cozy and comfortable room – quite. Prices vary greatly, it all depends on the location relative to the city center. But on average for such a room will have to lay out about 20-50 euros per week.
A more budget option – rent a hostel . It will cost about 20-25 euros per week. If you are traveling as a family or a small group, you can try to rent an apartment. For it will have to pay 100-300 euros.
Traditional German cuisine
German cuisine combines the traditions of numerous regions of the country, so the traditional menu is quite diverse. But you should definitely try:
There are 1,500 thousand species of them in the country. In such a pile every gourmand will find something to his liking. Smoked and liveried varieties are especially popular.
Also very popular and in demand. The traditional varieties are made of pork, there are exceptions. Hamburg sausages, for example, are made from veal and fish. And “bokwurst” (Berlin smoked-cooked sausages) are made from beef with added spices.
The Germans call it “Sauerkraut.” It is usually served as a side dish to meat or fish.
This is a rolled dough with a filling, a kind of roll. Cherries or apples are usually used as the filling.
A traditional German sweet. It is made of almonds and powdered sugar. The almonds are ground into a powder and mixed with powdered sugar or sometimes syrup. The result is a thick mass with a pleasant taste.
All this stuff costs a pretty penny. You can get it only in restaurants or cafes and the average bill for dinner there is 10-15 euros (700-1000 р!). And if you eat at high-level restaurants the price can be as high as 30-60 euros.
In general, food in Germany is an expensive pleasure, if you compare it to Russian prices. The “hardened” recommend to eat in cafe on the outskirts (6-7 euros for lunch).
And students give preference to fast food cafes, where for 4.5-5 euros you can have a quick and nourishing snack.
How to get to Germany
To get to Germany for a Russian tourist is not so easy. You need to issue a bunch of papers for permission, and the main among them is a visa. Without a visa to visit the country is not possible. Tourists need to apply for the usual tourist visa. If you have a desire to earn extra money, you’ll need a work visa. For the study you need an education visa, and so on.
There are two types of visas that will allow you to visit the country – the Schengen visa and the national visa category D.
The advantage of the first is that it can travel throughout Europe, and the second allows you to visit only Germany itself. Of course, it is better to get a Schengen visa, but sometimes it is denied. Then the alternative airfield is visa D. It is easier to obtain than the Schengen visa. The cost of the Schengen visa is the same and is 35 euros, the D visa is 60 euros.
Once you have obtained a visa, it’s time to go. You can get to Germany by plane, train or even bus. Of course, the plane is the fastest way (2-3 hours flight). The cost of tickets from Moscow for the cheapest flights starts from 8 thousand rubles. Those who are afraid of flying, should pay attention to the trains and buses, which take 25 hours to get you to Berlin in one piece. But the cost is very different – the cost of a standard train ticket starts at 300 euros (20 thousand rubles), and for the bus have to pay about 3 times less. Still, the plane is the best way to travel, both in terms of price and time.
Pros and cons of traveling to Germany
Among the pros are the following facts:
- Choosing Germany for your trip, you get the highest level of service, which includes: quality service in the hotel or resort; comfortable apartments for the rest; delicious and healthy food.
- The most fastidious tourist will find something to see in this country. After all, it is very carefully treated to the history.
- Festivals and celebrations create an unforgettable and magical atmosphere. It is she is very memorable.
- Beer! If you are in Germany, you will taste the real German beer, brewed by ancient technology. And believe me, with Russian varieties, it has little in common.
But there are also disadvantages:
- Prices . First of all they are. Prices for food, accommodation and travel hit the Russian tourist pretty hard. It’s all about the difference between Russian and German standards of living.
- Tourists . Yes, yes, you heard right. Germany is so attractive that it is literally flooded with tourists all year round. There’s nothing worse than seeing a cathedral or a painted house in an eerie crush.
- For some, the downside may be the mentality of the Germans. In a nutshell, it can be described as official and benevolent. For the open-minded Russian person it can be unusual and even unpleasant.
A good vacation should take place abroad. If you want to visit Europe, then Germany is the most suitable candidate for this. Here you do not get bored. So have a nice vacation and easy way!
Germany – the most detailed information about the country with photos. Attractions, cities in Germany, climate, geography, population and culture.
Germany is a state in central Europe. It is one of the largest and richest countries in the European Union, washed by the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, and bordered by Denmark in the north, the Czech Republic and Poland in the east, Austria and Switzerland in the south, France, Belgium, Holland (Netherlands) and Luxemburg in the west. Germany consists of 16 federal states and is a federal state with a parliamentary form of government. The official language is German. The majority of the population is Christian.
Germany is one of the most popular holiday and travel destinations. The country is extremely diverse: from the sandy beaches of the Baltic and Northern seas to the mountain ranges of the Alps in the south, from the gloomy forests and picturesque Black Forest to the vast fields of the agricultural regions, from the vineyards of the Rhine Valley to the chalk cliffs of Rügen. There is a place for everyone: the old Bavarian towns of Nuremberg, Regensburg, Bamberg, or the famous Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Rostock, Lubeck, the modern metropolitan cities of Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Frankfurt am Main, or other popular tourist centers such as Dresden, Hanover, Cologne.
Useful information about Germany
- The official language is German.
- Currency is the euro.
- Visas are Schengen.
- Standard of living is high.
- The population is more than 82 million people.
- The area is more than 357 thousand square kilometers.
- The capital is Berlin.
- It is customary to leave a tip of 5-10% of the bill.
- Time zone +1. Relative to Moscow time -1 in summer and -2 in winter.
- Form of government is federal parliamentary republic.
Geography and nature
Northern Germany is a plain. The central part of the country is mostly hills and foothills covered with forests. The southern part of Germany is mountainous. Here begins the Alps and is the highest point – Mount Zugspitze (2,962 m).
The Alps in Germany
A huge number of rivers flow through Germany. The largest of them: Rhine, Danube, Elbe, and Oder. The largest lake is Lake Constance, an area of more than 500 sq km and a maximum depth of 250 meters.
The Elbe River in Dresden
The North of Germany is washed by the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Here are the main seaports and seaside resorts. In the coastal zone is a large number of islands, the largest of which is the island of Rügen.
The Baltic coast
The nature of Germany is typical of a temperate climate. Most of the territory (32%) is covered by deciduous and mixed forests, dominated by spruce, pine, oak and beech. In arid areas there are heath plains, a small part of the territory is covered with marshes, in the mountains you can find alpine and subalpine meadows. Half of the country is agricultural land: fields and pastures. In the Rhine valley there are vineyards. The animal life is characteristic of the forest zone, except that there are no large mammals in Germany: elks, brown bears, wolves, etc.
Germany is located in a temperate climate zone. In the north, the climate and weather are largely determined by the proximity of the sea. In the south, the climate is closer to the temperate continental climate. The weather in Germany is often very changeable. Warm days can alternate with cool and rainy days. In general, the seasons are clearly marked and some extreme weather events (heat, extreme cold and hurricanes) are rare and transient. The average summer temperature is 15-20 degrees. In winter the temperature is close to zero or low frosts. In the mountains, of course, colder. During the year falls 600-800 mm of precipitation (it all depends on the region).
Winter forest (Germany)
Best time to visit
Germany is a country that can be visited almost all year round. It all depends on the season you like. Germany is magical at Christmas and in winter, covered in snow, blooming in spring, green in summer and beautiful in fall. The ideal time to visit is from May to August. This is the time of the highest tourist season. The transitional period with comfortable weather conditions is March-April and September-October. Late autumn and winter (except Christmas holidays) are the low tourist season, which is not bad for economy travel.
Autumn in Germany
The name of the country in Russian comes from the Latin name of the tribes that live behind the Rhine valley and goes back to the times of the Roman Empire. The Romans called these tribes “Germans. The official name of the country in German is Deutschland. It is used since the 15th century.
The first mention of the Germanic tribes dates back to the period of ancient Greece. Further mentions of the Germans are found in ancient Roman documents. From antiquity to the 10th century most of the territory of Germany was settled by Slavic tribes. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the kingdom of the Franks was formed in Western Europe. In the 9th century, Charlemagne created a new empire, which did not last long. Charlemagne’s grandsons divided the empire into three kingdoms. The kingdom of the Eastern Franks later became Germany.
Regensburg is an ancient city in Bavaria
The date of Germany’s founding as a state is thought to be 962, when Otto I, King of the East Franks, became King of the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire was a confederation of states with extensive powers. They had their own coinage and army. The emperor was chosen by a special council. The lands represented their interests in the Reichstag.
In the 12th-14th century the lands inhabited by the Slavs became part of the Empire in one way or another. The Slavic population was displaced or assimilated.
The Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist in the early 19th century during the Napoleonic Wars. After the Congress of Vienna, the German Union was formed and ruled by the Kaiser. In 1866 the German Union broke up. In 1877 the North German Union was formed, which later became the German Empire. At the end of the 19th century Germany becomes one of the leading countries in Europe. Culture, science, and philosophy flourish in the country.
The Rhine is the largest river in Germany
In 1914, Germany entered World War I. In 1918, the King of Prussia abdicated the throne as a result of the revolution, and Germany became a Socialist Republic. In 1933, the National Socialist Party, led by Adolf Hitler, came to power. In 1939, World War II was launched. After the end of the war and its defeat, the country was divided into two parts – the FRG and the GDR. In 1990 Germany became united. The GDR became part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Germany consists of 16 federal states:
- Baden-Württemberg – center Stuttgart
- Free State of Bavaria – center Munich
- Berlin (capital)
- Brandenburg – center Potsdam
- Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
- Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg
- Hesse – center Wiesbaden
- Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania – Schwerin center
- Lower Saxony – center Hannover
- North Rhine-Westphalia – center Dusseldorf
- Rhineland-Palatinate – center Mainz
- Saarland – center Saarbrücken
- Free State of Saxony – center Dresden
- Saxony-Anhalt – center Magdeburg
- Schleswig-Holstein – center Kiel
- Free State of Thuringia – center Erfurt
Bavaria capital – Munich
The population of Germany is more than 82 million people. The country is one of the largest in Europe. Germans account for 92% of the population. The largest diasporas are Turkish, from the former Yugoslavia and the former Soviet Union. Most of the population is Christian. 90% of Germans live in cities. The official language is German. Many people (especially young people) speak English. About 6 million people understand Russian.
Germans – a nation of neat, serious and disciplined. They try to stick to the rules, like order, take all matters seriously, and sometimes even overly pedantic. As for openness – it all depends on the person. In general, the Germans are quite open and friendly. It seemed that the population of West Germany is more open than in East Germany.
Landscapes of Germany
Transport infrastructure in Germany is one of the best in Europe and the world. One of the main advantages of the transport network is the famous autobahn. These are high-speed highways with excellent road surfaces. Some of them do not even have speed limits. Given that the highways connect Germany with neighboring countries are free, with fuel costs are slightly cheaper than in France, Austria and Italy, traveling around the country by car is very fast and comfortable. One of the disadvantages is only that there are a lot of traffic jams near large cities and heavy traffic, which somewhat increases the travel time.
Autobahn in Germany
In Germany, quite a lot of international airports. They link the country with almost all European countries and the world. Germany’s largest airports are located in Frankfurt am Main, Munich, Hamburg, Berlin, Dusseldorf, Cologne, Dresden and Nuremberg.
Also in Germany there is a well-developed railway service. The length of railroads is more than 35 thousand km. High-speed trains are integrated into the European transport system.
View timetables and tickets for various modes of transport here – https://www.verkehrsmittelvergleich.de
The capital of Germany is the city of Berlin, located in the north-eastern part of the country on the banks of the river Spree. It is one of the largest cities in Europe. Berlin became the capital during the German Empire. From 1961 to 1989 was divided by a wall, which has become one of its main attractions and symbols.
The capital of Germany – Berlin
The economic center of Germany is the city of Frankfurt am Main. It is also probably the most modern city in the country with skyscrapers and many new buildings. Deserves attention and the former capital of Germany – Bonn.
Frankfurt am Main
One of the largest cities in Germany and the major seaport is Hamburg. Very interesting are the ancient Hanseatic cities of Northern Germany – Bremen, Luebeck, Lüneburg, Wismar, Rostock.
Hanseatic City Bremen
Many interesting cities are located in Bavaria. Definitely worthy of attention its capital – Munich, the ancient Nuremberg, Regensburg, Bamberg, Rothenburg.
City of Rothenburg in Bavaria
Other interesting cities include the Saxon capital Dresden, the romantic Freiburg, the industrial centers of Ruhr Essen and Dortmund, as well as Cologne, Hanover, Dusseldorf, Leipzig, Stuttgart and the Romans founded Augsburg and Trier.
Germany is a country full of sights and monuments, most of which date back to the Middle Ages. There are also outstanding natural sites: the Alps, Rhine Valley, Lake Constance, Black Forest, Rügen Island and many others.
Germany is home to 34 sites that have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Map of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Germany
In Germany there is a large number of castles. The most famous of them are Kaiserburg in Nuremberg, Neuschwanstein, Hohenzollern, Heidelberg, Wartburg, Hohenschwangau.
Very famous are the monuments of sacred architecture – ancient cathedrals and churches. In Northern Germany and in Bavaria remained enormous masterpieces of Gothic.
Germany is extremely interesting country for tourists. Despite the two world wars, almost every old town can amaze you with interesting sights and old architecture.
In Germany there are a huge number of hotels, inns and pensions in different price ranges. Average room rates are much higher than in neighboring Czech Republic and Poland and is on a par with France and Austria. Although if you plan your trip in advance you can find very economical and comfortable options. Many places in the price includes breakfast, which is usually very good. In principle, a good room for two in almost any region of Germany can be found for 50-70 euros.
Black Forest Landscapes
German cuisine is a synthesis of Eastern and Western European cuisine. At the same time there are differences in the cuisine of the north and the south. Traditional regional dishes can be found in Northern Germany and Bavaria.
The cost of food in Germany is not the cheapest. The average bill for two in a cheap restaurant is about 50 euros.
The main drink in Germany is beer. The quality and production volumes of beer are not inferior to those of the Czech Republic. In the historical region of Franconia there are winemaking regions that produce very good wine.
€95 per tour
Nuremberg through the ages
Hear the history of the most interesting places in the Old Town and get valuable tips from locals
€110 per tour
On both sides of the barricades: a walking tour of Berlin
We’ll immerse you in the history of the capital and see its key sights for 3 hours