Guyana – The Republic of Guyana is a state in South America

Guyana

Of the English acronym for Guyana [ɡaɪˈænə] ) (formally the Co-operative Republic of Guyana [3]), formerly British Guiana, the country lies on the northeast coast of South America. It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Venezuela to the west, Brazil to the south, and Suriname to the east. Guyana is the only continental country in South America that is a member of the Commonwealth, and the only English-speaking country on the continent.

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Geography

Guyana is located in the eastern part of the Guiana Plateau. In the west is the country’s highest mountain, Roraima (2,772 m).

The Atlantic coast is flanked by extremely marshy lowlands, reaching a width of 100 km.

The climate is subequatorial, hot and humid. The average temperature on the coast is from 26 to 28 ° C. Two rainy seasons – from April to August and from November to January.

There are a lot of rivers, lakes and waterfalls. The biggest of them is Kaieteur Falls, 5 times higher than Niagara Falls.

Almost 90 percent of the territory of the country is covered by damp jungle.

The animal world is rich and diverse. More than 100 species of mammals, including sloths, anteaters, armadillos, tapirs. Many different monkeys. In the rivers there are otters, various fish (including piranhas), caimans. Among birds – hummingbirds, parrots, toucans, pheasants, herons. Insects include giant beetles and butterflies. In the coastal waters of the ocean there is an abundance of shrimp.

History

Before the arrival of Europeans, the territory of what is now Guyana was inhabited by the Arawak Indians. At the end of the XV century the Spaniards discovered the coast of Guyana, but they were not attracted to this swampy terrain with an unhealthy climate. However, Guyana interested other Europeans.

Colonial period

During the XVIII-XIX centuries between Britain, the Netherlands and France were fighting for the right of possession of Guiana. The first successes were achieved by Holland, establishing by 1773 its three settlements at the mouths of the Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice Rivers.

At first the Dutch were mainly engaged in trade with the Indian tribes. Then they began to develop plantation farming, cultivating tobacco, cotton, coffee, and sugar cane. Attempts to use Indian labor on the plantations failed because the Indians did not want to work. Beginning in the mid-17th century, the Dutch began importing negro slaves from Africa. However, blacks also often fled the plantations into the jungle, forming communities of so-called “forest negroes.

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In 1803 Britain took over the Dutch settlements, and in 1814 the Treaty of Vienna formally acquired the land, which in 1831 was united under the name British Guiana.

The British also occupied the peripheral lands of the former Great Colombia, initiating a territorial dispute with independent Venezuela over the territory of Guyana-Essequibo (Western Guyana).

Britain’s abolition of slavery in 1834 led to a mass exodus of former plantation slaves to the cities. Some Negroes established their own townships. The reluctance of freed Negroes to work on the plantations again raised the question of manpower. The British began to recruit contract laborers. They were Portuguese from Madeira, Chinese, but most of all Indians.

From the end of the 19th century, the British began to develop bauxite, gold, and diamond mining in the colony, as well as sugar production.

In 1926 the first constitution of British Guiana was introduced, and a local legislative council was created.

In 1950, the People’s Progressive Party of Guyana, which adhered to Marxist-Leninist ideology, was established. In fact, it became the ruling party in 1964.

The period of independence

On May 26, 1966, Guyana was declared an independent state; on February 23, 1970, it became the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. This name was related to the PNPG’s declared course of building “cooperative socialism,” which was enshrined in the country’s 1980 constitution.

After independence, a large part of the population emigrated, mainly to Great Britain, but also to the USA and Canada.

Guyana has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR on 17.12.1970).

In August 2010 Guyana introduced visa-free travel with Russia. Russian citizens may stay in Guyana for ninety days without obtaining a visa. The new regime came into effect on August 1, 2010. This decision was made to attract Russian tourists to the country.

State structure

It is a republic. The head of state is the president. He is the leader of the party that won the next parliamentary elections. The number of terms of presidency is recently limited to two terms of 5 years. Since November 2011 – Donald Ramotar.

Parliament – unicameral State Assembly, 65 deputies elected by the people for 5 years.

Political parties

The main parties (according to the results of parliamentary elections in August 2006):

  • People’s Progressive Party–leftist (Indian), 36 seats in parliament;
  • People’s National Congress-Left (Negro), 22 seats;
  • Alliance for Change – leftist (multiracial), 5 seats.

In addition, there are the Guyana Action Party; Justice for All; Uplift, Organize and Rebuild; United Force; Unity Party; Vision Guyana; and the Working People’s Alliance.

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Population

The population is 0.75 million (July 2010 estimate).

About 90% live in coastal areas.

Annual loss of population – 0.5% (high rate of emigration from the country).

Fertility: 17.6 per 1,000 (fertility: 2.4 births per woman)

Mortality – 7.2 per 1000

Emigration – 15.8 per 1,000

Life expectancy – 63 years for men, 71 years for women

Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection 2.5% (2007 estimate)

Urban population – 28%

Ethno-racial composition (according to 2002 census):

  • 43.5 % – Indians
  • 30.2 % – blacks
  • 16.7 per cent mixed (mestizo and mulatto)
  • 9.1 % – Indians
  • 0.4%: Others (Portuguese, Chinese, Arabs)
  • English (official)
  • Creole (based on English)
  • Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi)
  • Indian languages

Religions (according to 2002 census):

  • Hindus 28.4 %
  • Pentecostals 16.9 %
  • Catholics 8.1 %
  • Anglicans 6.9 %
  • Seventh-day Adventists 5%
  • Methodists 1.7%
  • Jehovah’s Witnesses 1.1%
  • other Christians 17.7%
  • Muslims 7,2 %
  • others 4.3%
  • atheists 4,3 %

Economy

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood, shrimp, fish. There are deposits of manganese, iron, molybdenum, and nickel ores, but they are not developed. Large hydroelectric resources are also little used.

Guyana has one of the lowest per capita GDPs ($3,900 in 2009) in the Caribbean region and 157th in the world.

Guyana’s economy is based on agriculture and mining (6 main products – sugar, gold, bauxite, shrimp, timber, rice).

The main problems are insufficiently skilled labor and underdeveloped infrastructure.

High foreign debt – $0.8 billion at the end of 2008 (in 2007, the Inter-American Development Bank wrote off Guyana’s debt of nearly $0.5 billion).

Unemployment – 11% (in 2007).

Agriculture (25% of GDP) – sugarcane, rice, shrimp, fish, vegetable oil; cattle, pigs, poultry.

Industry (24% of GDP) – bauxite mining, sugar production, rice processing, timber industry, textiles, gold mining.

The service sector – 51% of GDP.

Imports ($1.3 billion in 2008) – manufactured goods, petroleum products and food.

Main suppliers – United States 23.4%, Trinidad and Tobago 22.3%, Finland 7.7%, Cuba 6.1%, China 5.7%.

It is a member of the international organization of ACP countries.

In 2005, Russian Aluminum opened a representative office in Georgetown, and in 2006, the company entered into an agreement with the Government of Guyana to privatize the Berberis bauxite mines, according to which its stake in the company will be 90%.

Transportation

The coverage of the country’s territory by transport corridors is low.

The main mode of transport in Guyana is road. Of the 8,000 km of roads 590 km are paved [4].

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The length of railroads in 2005 is 187 km [4] .

The length of river routes used for navigation is 1,000 km [4] .

The most important seaports are Georgetown, New Amsterdam, and Everton [4] .

There are three international airports and about 40 local airfields [4] .

Foreign policy

Territorial disputes

In the late 19th century, Venezuela announced its claims to the territory of British Guiana west of the Essequibo River, after gold and diamond deposits were discovered there. The International Arbitral Tribunal in 1899 decided the dispute mainly in favor of Britain, and Venezuela was given the area in northwestern British Guiana.

Since 1962, four years before Guyana received its independence from Britain, Venezuela once again began to claim territory west of the Essequibo River – an area of about 160,000 km², that is almost three-quarters of the entire territory of Guyana. These claims have been repeated by all Venezuelan presidents, including the current one, Hugo Chavez.

In addition, Suriname claims a part of the territory in the southeast of Guyana. Oil deposits are suspected to exist there.

Armed forces

Consists of ground forces, coast guard, and air forces.

The Ground Force has two infantry battalions (including one reserve; in peacetime only the battalion headquarters and one company are manned), an engineer battalion, and a supply battalion.

Coast Guard – five patrol boats.

The Air Force has light patrol aircraft and one transport helicopter.

Administrative Divisions of Guyana

Guyana is divided into 10 regions.

Region Region Area, km² Population (2002) Pers. Population density, persons/km²
1 Barima-Waini Barima-Waini 20 339 24 275 1,19
2 Cuyuni-Mazaruni Cuyuni-Mazaruni 47 213 17 597 0,37
3 Demerara-Mahaica Demerara-Mahaica 2 232 310 320 139,03
4 East Berbice-Corentyne East Berbice-Corentyne 36 234 123 695 3,41
5 Essequibo Islands-West Demerara Essequibo Islands-West Demerara 3 755 103 061 27,45
6 Mahaica-Berbice Mahaica-Berbice 4 190 52 428 12,51
7 Pomeroon-Supenaam Pomeroon-Supenaam 6 195 49 253 7,95
8 Potaro-Siparuni Potaro-Siparuni 20 051 10 095 0,50
9 Upper Demerara-Berbice Upper Demerara-Berbice 17 040 41 112 2,41
10 Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo 57 750 19 387 0,34
Total 214 999 751 223 3,49

Notes

  1. ↑ Guyana 2002 Census Bureau of Statistics – Guyana.
  2. ↑ 1 2 Guyana. Archived from the source on 22 August 2011.
  3. ↑ Constitution of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana Act (PDF) (March 1998). Archived from the source on 22 August 2011.Retrieved 17 February 2010.
  4. ↑ 1 2 3 4 5 The Great Russian Encyclopedia: In 30 vols. / Chaired by Y. S. Osipov. Ed. by S.L. Kravets. Т. 6. The Eightfold Path – the Germans. – M.: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2006. – 767 p.: ill.
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References

Coat of Arms – Flag – Anthem – State System – Constitution – Parliament – Administrative Division – Geography – Cities – Capital – Population – Languages – History – Economics – Currency – Culture – Religion – Cinema – Literature – Music – Holidays – Sports – Education – Science – Transport – Tourism – Post (history and stamps) – Internet – Armed Forces – Foreign Policy Guyana Portal

Guyana

Anthem of Guyana

Guyana is a small state in the north-east of South America with a population of about 730,000 people. Guyana (an ancient Amerindian name of the country) – is a former British colony – British Guiana, which gained independence in 1966. Before the arrival of Europeans in Guyana lived Indians of the Arawak tribe. Then the Dutch, the French and the English became alternately masters of the territory of the country. Guyana is called the “country of six peoples”: the development of plantation economy required a large number of workers, and first the negroes-slaves from Africa were brought here, and then – Indians. At present more than half of the population are Indians, about one-third are Negroes, and 13% are mestizos and mulattoes. The capital is Georgetown.

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General Information

Guyana means “land of many waters” in the local Indian language. There are indeed many lakes, rivers, and waterfalls. The Atlantic coast is marshy and covered in mangroves. The climate is hot and humid (average monthly temperature on the coast up to 28 ° C). The rainy season lasts from April to August and from November to January.

The main riches of the country are bauxites, which mining and processing are oriented for export. The main agricultural crop is sugar cane (most crops are concentrated on the Atlantic coast). Rice cultivation is also important. Most of the agricultural workers are Indians. Since the abolition of slavery, Negroes have lived mostly in cities. All major cities and towns, including the capital Georgetown, are located in the coastal strip, which is also preferred by tourists.

History of Guyana

Before the arrival of Europeans, the territory of what is now Guyana was inhabited by the Arawak Indians. At the end of the XV century the Spaniards discovered the coast of Guyana, but they were not attracted to this swampy terrain with an unhealthy climate. However, Guyana interested other Europeans.

Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Britain, the Netherlands, and France fought over the right to possess it. The first successes were achieved by Holland, establishing by 1773 three settlements at the mouths of the rivers: Essekibo, Demerara, and Berbice.

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At first the Dutch were mainly engaged in trade with the Indian tribes. Then they began to develop plantation farming, cultivating tobacco, cotton, coffee, and sugar cane. Attempts to use Indian labor on the plantations failed because the Indians were unwilling to work. Beginning in the mid-17th century, the Dutch began importing negro slaves from Africa. But the Negroes, too, often fled the plantations into the jungle, forming communities of so-called “forest negroes.

In 1803 England took over the Dutch settlements, and in 1814 the Treaty of Vienna formally acquired the lands, which in 1831 were united under the name British Guiana.

The abolition of slavery by the British in 1834 led to a mass exodus of former Negro slaves from the plantations to the cities. Some founded their own townships. The reluctance of freed blacks to work on the plantations again raised the question of labor. The British began to recruit contract laborers. They were Portuguese from Madeira, Chinese, but most of all Indians.

Beginning in the late 19th century, the British began to develop bauxite, gold, diamonds, and sugar production in Guyana.

In 1926 the first constitution was introduced, and a legislative council was created.

In 1950 the People’s Progressive Party of Guyana, which adhered to the Marxist-Leninist ideology, was established. In fact, it became the ruling party in 1964.

On May 26, 1966, Guyana was proclaimed an independent state; on February 23, 1970, it became the Cooperative Republic of Guyana. This name was related to the PNPG’s declared course of building “cooperative socialism,” which was enshrined in the country’s 1980 constitution.

Guyana’s economy

Guyana has one of the lowest per capita GDPs of the Caribbean region. The economy is based on agriculture (sugar cane in particular) and mining (bauxite in particular).

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood, shrimp, fish. There are deposits of manganese, iron, molybdenum, and nickel ores, but they are not developed. Large hydroelectric resources are also little used.

Export commodities: sugar, gold, bauxite, aluminum, rice, shrimp, shellfish, rum, timber.

In 2005, Russian Aluminum opened a representative office in Georgetown, and in 2006, the company entered into an agreement with the Government of Guyana to privatize the Berberis bauxite mines, according to which its stake in the company will be 90%.

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