Megalithic temples Hagar Qim and Mnajdra
The megalithic temples of Malta are one of those things that many tourists come to this country for. We, admittedly, are not big connoisseurs of megalithic architecture, so we only visited two during our week in the Maltese islands. We have already told about the Jgantija Temple, but today we will talk about Hajar Kim. In our opinion this temple is more interesting than the megalith on the island of Gozo, but then taste and color is what they say. Archaeologists will give you a thousand and one reasons why one is better than the other, and according to the degree of interest it is possible to write a series of scientific papers. We are not historians, not archaeologists, and not even local historians of Maltese archipelago, so we just share our impressions and tell a little bit of history. If you translate the name from Maltese, literally Qim means “standing stones for worship. This megalithic temple complex was built in 3600-3200 BC, about the same time as Jgantija.
Like other similar structures in Malta, Hajar Kim belongs to the oldest religious buildings on our planet. Perhaps that is why they were included in the list of sites under the protection of the World Heritage Fund of UNESCO. In addition, the complex of temples is included in various lists of unique places, including the list of the most interesting sights in Malta.
When we were in Malta, Hajar-Kim was in the open air and to visit it you had to brace yourself – to spend two hours under the scorching sun is quite difficult even for trained people. In 2009, a special tent was built over it, but this is not a concern for poor tourists, as one might think. The fact is that the limestone from which the temple was built, very much weathered, and to somehow protect the unique monument was built this protection.
Hajar Kim Temple Complex consists of the main temple and three additional megalithic structures that are located nearby. The main temple was built in the 4th century BC, but its neighbors came later.
Here we could rewrite a lot of clever words from Wikipedia about the features of architecture and the structure of the complex, but those who are really interested will find more correct sources, and everyone else just will not understand and say that we are showing off and demonstrate knowledge that in fact we do not possess.
To tell you the truth, if it weren’t for the years-long habit of taking notes on every trip and sorting through the photos as soon as we arrive, we wouldn’t have been able to separate the photos of Jgantiya from those of Hajar Kim a few years later. Even now, despite the prompts, there are some doubts as to whether we got something wrong .
The arrangement of Hajar Kim is very reminiscent of Jgantiya, a kind of deja vu effect. Of course there are peculiarities, and one of them is that this complex is better preserved than on the island of Gozo, but in general everything is very, very similar. The same niches, semi-circular rooms, pedestals. Except that there are more “standing” stones – apparently, the temple got its name for a reason.
The first studies of Hajar Kim began in the early 19th century and were carried out by a royal engineer at public expense. In two months of excavations, a detailed plan of all the buildings was made and one of the stone altars of the temple was sent to Valetta.
By the way, this altar can still be seen in the city’s museum. The results of the engineer’s work were published three years later – well, that’s normal, almost like bloggers – two months worked and then another three years wrote about it.
The second phase of research took place 50 years later, in 1885, and was done fairly regularly thereafter. In 1910 the entire vicinity was thoroughly explored in search of other ruins. As a result, many different implements and figurines of those times were found, most of which are on display in the main exhibition of the Museum of Valletta.
At 500 meters from Hajar Kim there is another famous megalith – Mnajdra. And now almost at the very end of the article for some reason it seems that in spite of numerous notes and records we have mixed up the photos of both temple complexes in one pile.
May our readers and experts in the field of megaliths forgive us, but we really can hardly distinguish them from each other. Mnajdra was built a little later than Jhantiya and Hajar, but it is also a historically important site that is on many lists and recommended to visit.
Both temples are open to the public daily from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. and admission costs about 10 euros. The megalithic monuments are certainly of great historical interest, but very much to the amateur. After visiting Hajar Kim and Mnajdra, we decided to finish our acquaintance with them and go to explore the Maltese cities, but about that another time. Stay tuned!
This article was stolen from http://poznamka.ru.
Hajar Kim and Mnajdra on a map
Hagar Kim and Mnajdra Megalithic Temples 2015-06-03T09:22:57+03:00 2019-07-30T17:34:44+03:00 Natalya ‘Poznamka’
Hagar Qim Megalithic Temple (Malta, Malta) – Earth before the Flood: vanished continents and civilizations
Hagar Qim , Malta. Ħaġar Qim, lit. “standing stones (for) worship” is a megalithic temple complex on the island of Malta. It belongs to the Jgantija phase of Maltese ancient history (3600-3200 BC). It is the largest of the megalithic temples of Malta, which is due to its multiple expansions during its existence at the expense of additional constructions and additions.
Builders of Hajar Im used coral limestone. Since the material is rather soft, the temple has suffered a lot from erosion over the millennia of its existence.
On the facade of the temple there is a trilithic (made of 3 slabs) entrance, an outdoor bench and orthostats. In front of the temple there is a wide courtyard with a fencing wall. The passage leads to the middle of the building. This design resembles the layout of other megalithic temples in Malta. A separate entrance leads to four separate annexes built in place of the northwestern apse.
The temple of Hajar-Kim belongs to the Jgantiya phase. It was built of local globigerine limestone, a rather soft material, and therefore has suffered greatly from erosion over the millennia. In 2009, a protective tent was erected over it. It stands on a hilltop on the southern side of the island of Malta. Its façade is characterized by a trilithic (of 3 slabs) entrance, an outdoor bench and orthostats. In front of the temple is a wide courtyard with a wall. A passageway leads to the middle of the building. A separate entrance leads to four separate annexes. The remains of sacrificial animals, statuettes of deities and pottery were found during excavations. The statuettes from the temple excavations are on display at the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta. There is a visitor center near the temple with an audio-visual representation of the temple and an exhibition. The megalithic complex of Mnajdra is 500 meters away from Hagar Quim.
Hagar Quim is one of the most famous prehistoric temples in Malta. Hagar – from the Arabic stone, “kuim” – standing, “standing stone. Another version translates the name as “Stones of Worship.”
Builders of Hagar Quim used coral limestone. Because this material is quite soft, the temple has suffered a lot of erosion over the millennia of its existence.
Quarries have been found in which these stones were mined without the use of a chisel or chisel. It is not clear how these boulders were turned out, what they were shaved with, how they were delivered to the site, and how the wheel was invented more than a thousand years before it was even invented.
Some of the stones in the masonry of the Hagar Quim Temple look somewhat strange, as if they have been under water for a long time. But not all of the stones are like that. As it seemed to me, different types of material were used in the masonry.
On the facade of the temple there is a trilithic (made of three slabs) entrance, an outside bench and orthostats (a vertically placed stone slab, an element of megalithic structure). In front of the temple there is a wide courtyard with a fencing wall. The passage leads to the middle of the building. This design resembles the layout of other megalithic temples in Malta. A separate entrance leads to four separate annexes built in place of the northwestern apse.
Two examples of prehistoric sculpture, decorated with plant ornaments and a pair of opposite spirals, were found in the temples. To ensure preservation, the sculptures are now in the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta. Exact replicas have been installed in the Hagar Quim temple.
During restoration work in 1949, 4 small statuettes depicting fat female bodies were found in Hagar Quim Temple. Similar statuettes have been found in several places in Malta and presumably depict the Mother Goddess.
Megalithic temples of Malta ( Ggantija , Hagar Qim , Mnajdra , Tarxien , Skorba , Ta Hagrat ) are studied and described in detail in literature and the Internet (including above). Therefore I decided to present in the reports on six megalithic temples of Malta their photos without characterization. The exception was made only by some photos which allow a different, not accepted in the official archaeological circles, interpretation of the origin of the temple complexes. According to the age of the megalithic temples of Malta I do not have my own ideas, therefore at the moment of writing these reports I conditionally accept their dating by the Neolithic or the Bronze Age. However, questions remain: 1) under all megalithic temples of Malta there are either underground structures, or ruins of rock structures, or stone ruts, which I confidently dated on the previous pages to the Neogene period; 2) in some megalithic blocks there are round holes drilled, which suggest the use of steel drilling tools during construction of temples, and this contradicts their dating to the Bronze Age; 3) in official archeological circles it is widely accepted that the stone b However, as I have shown in the previous pages, all these ruts are of Neogene, mainly of middle-late Miocene age. Therefore, the time of construction of megalithic temples could have been much earlier . I will definitely come back to this issue when I have more free time. Check out the site and stay tuned for updates.
If anyone would be interested in receiving personal reports on my research on the megalithic temples of Malta, write, we will agree.
See the photos taken by me and read the information on the stands on the peculiarities of construction and design of megalithic temples of Malta. Let it at least partially replace my explanations