The Republic of Indonesia
The official name of Indonesia: the Republic of Indonesia.
Territory of Indonesia: The area of the state Republic of Indonesia is 1919440 km².
Population of Indonesia: The population of Indonesia is more than 241 million people (241973879).
Ethnic groups in Indonesia: The ethnic composition of Indonesia is Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Badui, Tengger, Malay Indonesia, Balinese, Minangkabau, Aché, Banjara, Dayak, Makassar, Bugi, Minahas, Galela and others.
Life expectancy in Indonesia: The average life expectancy in Indonesia is 68.94 years (see Life expectancy rankings).
The capital city of Indonesia: Jakarta.
The largest cities of Indonesia: Jakarta – 8410 thousand inhabitants, Bandang – 2900 thousand, Surabaya – 2700 thousand, Medan – 2050 thousand, Polenbang – 1500 thousand, Tanjungkarang – 1400 thousand, Ujungpandang – 1170 thousand, Semarang – 1135 thousand.
The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian. Indonesian belongs to the Indonesian branch of the Austronesian family of languages. It developed on the basis of Malay language. Its writing is based on the Latin alphabet.
Religion in Indonesia: Most believers in Indonesia are Muslims (about 90%).
Geographical position of Indonesia: The Republic of Indonesia is a state in Southeast Asia, on the islands of the Malay Archipelago and the western part of the island of New Guinea (Irian Jaya). New Guinea (Irian Jaya). It borders Malaysia to the north and Papua New Guinea to the east. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. It consists of more than 13676 islands: 5 main and 30 smaller archipelagos. The largest islands are New Guinea, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi (Celebes) and Java. The other islands are much smaller. Indonesia extends over 5,120 km between the Asian mainland and Australia. The equator separates the Pacific Ocean from the Indian Ocean.
Indonesian rivers: The peculiarities of Indonesia’s climate and relief are conducive to the formation of a dense river network. Due to the abundance of precipitation, Indonesia’s rivers are full almost all year round and play an important role in the country’s irrigation system. In the mountainous areas, rivers are a potential source of electricity. However, flooding is not uncommon in the region, and rivers carry significant amounts of muddy material that makes navigation difficult and deposits in the coastal zone.
Indonesia’s largest rivers in Kalimantan are the Kapuas, or Kapuas Besar River (1040 km, basin area of 97,000 km²) in West Kalimantan, Mahakam (715 km) in East Kalimantan, and Martapura and Barito (650 km) in South Kalimantan. Most rivers originate in the central mountain range; on the plains, closer to the coast, they flow through extensive marshes; the channels often change. Settlements have formed along many rivers, also serving as transportation arteries.
The largest rivers of Sumatra originate on the slopes of the Bukit Barisan Range and flow into the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea. These include Hari (Jambi) (800 km), Musi (553 km), Kampar (285 km), Rokan (265 km), and Siak (260 km). To the east, along the coast, stretches the world’s most extensive tropical swamp. Its area is about 155 thousand square kilometers. Most of the rivers of Sumatra are navigable. In the southeast, upstream, there are river ports – Jambi on the Hari River and Palembang on the Musi River.
In the Indonesian part of the island of New Guinea there are more than 30 major rivers flowing from the Maoke Mountains north into the Pacific Ocean, like the Mamberamo River (over 500 km), or south into the Arafura Sea. The rivers are navigable in their lower reaches. One of the most important is the Digul River (400 km), which begins in the Jayawijaya mountains and flows into the Arafura Sea. The rivers of Sulawesi are short with a rough current. The main rivers of Java – Tarum and Manuk, originating near the southern coast in West Java, Serang in Central Java, Solo and Brantas in East Java – flow into the Java Sea. The coastal areas in the north are swampy.
Administrative and territorial division of Indonesia: Indonesia is located on a large number of islands, scattered over many thousands of kilometers. The country is divided into 33 provinces (including two metropolitan areas), which are classified into six administrative regions. Indonesian provinces are governed by a governor, who since 2005 has been directly elected by the population. Two megacities, Jakarta and Yogyakarta, have a special status equal to provinces.
The supreme legislative body of Indonesia is the People’s Consultative Congress (meets every five years). Current legislative matters are handled by Parliament – the People’s Council of Representatives (550 seats). All members of the House of People’s Representatives, plus an additional 195 indirectly elected members, are members of the People’s Consultative Congress. The deputies of the Council of People’s Representatives are elected for 5 years by a proportional representation system in multi-member districts. The head of state and government is the president.
Indonesia – the official name of the Republic of Indonesia
Full name: Republic of Indonesia Capital: Jakarta Area: 1,904,569 sq km Population: 248,645,008 Official language: Indonesian Official currency: Indonesian rupiah.
Muslims and pagans, businessmen and savage cannibals coexist here. It’s the only place where you can see the world’s last dragon, the world’s smallest fish and a flower weighing six kilos. The one who dares to get acquainted with this country, waiting for the smoking volcanoes and impassable jungle, ancient temples and palaces …
The locals call their homeland Tanah Air Kita, which means “Our Land and Water”.
Indonesia is the largest island nation in the world. There are about 17 thousand islands. Most of them are uninhabited, many are still nameless. Because of this, they are often “stolen. Earth is dug out with excavators, loaded on barges and taken away, for example, to neighboring Singapore, where it is not enough.
Indonesia’s largest islands are New Guinea (only the western part belongs to Indonesia), Kalimantan, Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi. The first three of them are among the ten largest in the world.
The islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Java form an archipelago called the Greater Sunda Islands. The smaller islands of Flores, Timor, Bali, and others are grouped into the Lesser Sunda Islands. Both are part of the vast Malay Archipelago.
The island of Java is the most populous in the world. On the territory, which is half the size of Belarus, 128 million people, that’s half the population of the whole of Indonesia! There is not a single piece of free land, the slopes of mountains plowed up and houses literally coming on top of each other. Java is so overpopulated that it looks like a big anthill.
Indonesians love being photographed and they love it when tourists take pictures of their children. Therefore, the man with the camera on the streets of Indonesian settlements is the main object of attention. The locals are sure to approach him and not hesitate to ask: “How about a photo?”
Indonesia is the largest Muslim country in the world in terms of population. Islam is the main religion in the archipelago. For this reason, some unusual for us rules and traditions are observed in Indonesia. For example, it is forbidden to touch the head of an Indonesian. It is sacred, so only the owner can touch it. Stroking a child’s head is an insult. The left hand is considered “unclean” in Indonesia. It is not a good sign to pass something or to touch a person with it.
Indonesia is a former colony of Holland.
The inhabitants of Indonesia speak more than 580 languages but there is only one official language – Indonesian. In Indonesia it is called Bahasa Indonesia (“Bahasa” means “language”). Despite its official recognition, only Indonesians living in large cities speak it. Everyone else uses local languages.
Suparvono, an Indonesian worker, is one of the tallest people in the world. The Indonesian Gulliver is 25 years old and lives on the island of Sumatra. His height is 2 m 42 cm. Suparvono was only 5 cm short of the Guinness Book of Records record holder Sultan Kosen from Turkey… Every day the giant eats up to 3 kg of rice and 15 eggs.
Indonesia is one of the world leaders in rice harvesting, cassava production, cocoa bean and rubber planting. The coconut harvest is second to none in the world.
Two Capitals: From Present to Past “Rattlesnake Mix” Jakarta
Jakarta is the official capital of Indonesia. It is located on the island of Java. About 10 million people live in this city, which is about as many as in the whole of Belarus! There are so many people in Jakarta that the streets are always crowded. There are almost no sidewalks. People move along the edge of the roadway, pushing each other. There are constant traffic jams, even at night. Because of the large amount of traffic, there is always a gray haze over the city.
The most popular public transportation for Jakartans is the bicycle rickshaw. The cyclist-driver pedals and carries one or two passengers in the cart. You can easily get around any traffic jam with this kind of transport. New York City is often referred to as the “big apple.” Jakarta also has a “fruit” name – durian. The capital of Indonesia is united with this fruit… by its smell. The durian fruit reeks of rotten fish. Visitors say that this is how Jakarta “smells” too…
The brightest holiday in Jakarta is the Kite Festival. Each participant must make a kite and bring it to the square. Then all together they fly their kites into the sky.
To see Indonesia as a whole, just visit the park “Beautiful Indonesia in miniature” near Jakarta. All the islands of the archipelago are reproduced here in an artificial lake, around which there are many pavilions, introducing the traditions and architecture of all the provinces of Indonesia. The park has a garden of orchids and cacti.
The “soul” of Java.
Located not in Jakarta, but in the neighboring city of Yogyarta, which is called the cultural capital of Indonesia. The similar names are no coincidence. Yogyarta was also once the capital.
When Indonesia belonged to Holland, there was a sultanate on the island of Java. Its ruler fought with all his might for the independence of Indonesia. After a while the country became free and became a republic. But the president, remembering the merits of the sultan, preserved his state. And so there is a sultanate on the territory of the republic to this day. The sultan is the governor of the province of Yogyakarta, he has a palace where family members and servants live.
In the vicinity of Yogyarta are the largest temples in the world – Borobudur and Prambanan, declared UNESCO monuments.
Near Yogyakarta stands the most “energetic” volcano in all of Indonesia, Merapi. It is constantly smoking, hinting that you need to be prepared for its eruption.
Prambanan is one of the most important Hindu shrines in the world. It was built during the prosperity of Hinduism in Java, that is, around the IX century. The temple consists of eight huge towers dedicated to the gods. In the center are the three main ones. They symbolize the gods Brahma, Shiva, and Vishnu. In Hinduism, Shiva is the destroyer, Brahma is the creator, and Vishnu is the one who helps in life.
Borobudur (translated as “many Buddhas”) is the largest Buddhist temple in the world. This wonder of the world was built in the VIII century, and then it was forgotten… The impassable jungle blocked all the roads to it, and the ash completely covered its walls. The temple was accidentally discovered only in the 18th century. Perhaps many years ago there was a strong volcanic eruption, as a result of which the ash “buried” the temple for a millennium.
Borobudur is shaped like a pyramid. At the very top are 72 stupas in the form of bells (their number is not accidental: 7 + 2 = 9, which is a sacred number in Buddhism). Inside each is a statue of a sitting Buddha, only one of them has no arm, the other has no head. Only one stupa has survived as a whole. They say that if you touch it, then all your desires will come true…
The Paradise Island of Bali
The island of Bali is one of the most famous in Indonesia. It is famous for its beaches, the waves that attract surfers from all over the world, volcanoes, jungles, and rice paddies. It is called the pearl of the archipelago because of the lush vegetation, constantly warm sea, and extremely friendly locals.
The cultural capital of Bali is called the city of Ubud, which is located in the interior of the island. Artists, writers, and other creative people live there. In Ubud, a lot of workshops where they draw pictures, carve sculptures of wood and stone, make jewelry and batik.
Batik is painting on fabric, most often silk or cotton. It is native to Indonesia. There are many batik factories in this country. First, the fabric is waxed. Then it is dipped into containers with different colors. Batik fabric is used to make handkerchiefs, ties, scarves, paintings, and much more.
The city is surrounded by endless rice paddies. Rice for the Balinese is like potatoes for the Belarusians. They eat it several times a day, they make sweets out of it. No Balinese will sit at the table without rice. During the year, four harvests of the crop are gathered in Bali!
The brightest holiday is called Galungan – celebration of the victory of good over evil. On the eve of the Balinese set along the roads decorated with banana leaves and sprigs of rice, tall bamboo poles. On the day of the celebration, processions of locals in national dress walk through the streets of Ubud to the temples to bring gifts to their many gods.
Balinese, unlike most people in Indonesia, are Hindu rather than Islamic. It is a very ancient religion. Its essence is that each person’s life is watched by many gods. One of the main “commandments” of the religion is that you should do only good things on earth. People who cheat, steal, and do evil to others will be bad afterwards, after death. This is similar to our Christian precepts, except Balinese all abide by them and rush to do good.
Toward evening, Balinese children in national costumes carry an effigy of one of the deities from yard to yard, singing, dancing, playing folk instruments. For this, people give them money and treats with sweets.
Kuta is the most popular tourist town in Bali, where it is very interesting to watch the surfers.
Surfing is riding a wave on special lightweight boards. There are many schools in Kuta, which teach the sport. They are actively engaged not only adults, but also children. They have special small boards on which they are trying to “ride” the wave. Many of them are very good at it!
In Bali, a lot of very old temples. To get there, be sure to wear a sarong – a piece of cloth that is tied around the hips and it eventually looks like a skirt. The sarong must be worn by both men and women! It is given away for free at the entrance to the temple, but many foreigners buy sarongs as a souvenir.
There are several volcanoes in Bali, one of them is loved by tourists to climb. You should start climbing at 2 or 3 in the morning to get to the top in time to meet the sunrise there.