Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran, before 1935 Persia

Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran, before 1935 Persia

Ethnic composition: Persians 51%, Azerbaijanis 20%, Kurds 9%, Lurs 6.6%, Arabs 2.1%, Turkmens 1.5%, Baluchi 1.3%, Armenians 0.2%, Pashtuns 0.18%, Talysh 0.17%. Official language: Farsi (Persian), schools necessarily study Arabic.

History

The most ancient state formations were formed on the territory of Iran in the early 3rd millennium B.C. In the middle of the 6th century B.C. – Achaemenid state. In the 3rd century A.D. – VII century AD under the Sassanids the feudalization of the Iranian society began. In the middle of VII century Iran was conquered by Arabs. In XI-XII centuries. – In XI – XII centuries Iran was conquered by the Arabs. – Mongolian Hulaguids dynasty.

In the beginning of the 16th century, the Safavids established themselves (until 1736), and from the end of the 18th century, the Qajars (until 1925). – Qajars (until 1925).

In the last third of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Iran became a semi-colony (mainly of Great Britain and Russia).

During the Iranian revolution of 1905-1911 a constitution was proclaimed and a parliament (Majlis) was called.

In 1908 Shah Mohammed Ali staged a coup. The rebellion in Tabriz of 1908-1909 was suppressed.

Diplomatic relations were established with Russian SFSR in 1920 and the Soviet-Iranian treaty was signed in 1921. In 1925, the Pahlavi dynasty came to power.

From the 2nd half. 1930s Germany began to penetrate into Iran. During World War II (August 1941), Soviet and British troops were introduced into Iran (withdrawn in late 1945 – May 1946).

Democratic and anti-imperialist movement which had started in Iran in the mid-1940s was suppressed. In early 1960, the economic and internal political situation in Iran worsened. Under these conditions, the Shah’s government began to implement reforms to strengthen the monarchical regime and military power. The pro-Western orientation of the Shah’s regime and his policy of modernization of the country aroused growing resistance from religious circles that sought to restore the fundamental values of Islam in Iran.

In 1979, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (from 1941) was forced to leave the country, and the Shiite leader Ayatollah Khomeini, who returned from exile (from 1964), proclaimed the Islamic Republic of Iran.

In late 1979, relations between Iran and Iraq worsened, which in 1980 escalated into an armed conflict for the domination of influence in the Persian Gulf (in 1988 a ceasefire was achieved).

After Khomeini’s death (in 1989), the Iranian leadership began to carry out pragmatic reforms and the international policy was aimed at taking Iran out of the international isolation.

Religion

The official religion: according to the article of the constitution, Islam of Jafari, which recognizes the existence of 12 imams; other Islamic beliefs, in particular Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki, Hanbali and Zaydi, are fully respected.

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Of the religious minorities, only Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity are officially recognized. Preaching is strictly prohibited, and if a Muslim converts to Christianity, both he and his preacher face the death penalty. In 2005, Iranian authorities accused a number of “foreign religions,” including Christianity, of threatening the country’s national security. Iran is among the top countries that actively persecute Christians.

Geography

It is bounded by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south and south-west, and by the Caspian Sea to the north. It is bordered by land to the west by Iraq and Turkey, to the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, and to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan. Most of Iran is the Iranian Plateau. In the north is the Alborz Range, in the south-west is the Zagros Mountain System. Rivers Karun, Sefidrud; lakes – Urmia and Hamun. Deserts and semi-deserts prevail, and the northern slopes of the Elburz Mountains are covered with damp broadleaved forests.

Economy

Iran is an agrarian-industrial country with a developed oil industry. Share in GDP (1991/92, %): agriculture 24.2, industry 24.2 (including oil and gas industry 8.2). Main ports in Persian Gulf: Khorremshahr, Bender-Homeini, Bushir, Hark, Abadan, Bender-Makhsher; on the Caspian Sea – Enzeli, Nowshahr. Export: oil and oil products (95-99% of value), carpets, caviar etc. Main foreign trade partners: Germany, Italy, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates. Currency is the rial.

Materials used

  • http://www.vokrugsveta.ru/encyclopedia/index.php?title=Иран
  • The Great Encyclopedic Dictionary, article about Iran http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc3p/141110
  • http://www.iran.ru/rus

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Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran, before 1935 Persia

The “Islamic Republic,” Iran, a state in Southwest Asia. It was formed from the ethnonym Aryans, which referred to the Iean tribes that invaded the territory of Iran in the 2nd millennium B.C. Before 1935, the country was called Persia from the ethnonym Persians of the people who lived in the south of the country. The Russian name of this country was originally Per’isida (‘The Tale of Bygone Years’, XII c.) from the Greek Persis, Persidos; from this form of the name a Russian adjective: The Persian Gulf, etc. Later, under the influence of Latin. Persia, – Persia. See also Turan Depression, Urmia, Khorremshehr.

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(Iran) (Persia until 1935), a state in the Middle East. It is washed on the South and South-West. It is bounded to the South and West by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, to the North by the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea. The area of the country is 1.65 mln sq. km. It has a total area of 1.65 million sq. km, with a population of approx. Its capital is Tehran; other large cities are Mashhad, Isfahan, Tabriz and Shiraz. An ancient state formations were formed here at the beginning of the 3rd millennium B.C.; in the 6th century B.C., there was the Achaemenid State. In the middle of the 7th century, Syria was conquered by the Arabs, and in the XI-XII centuries, under the Seljuks. – It was conquered by the Seljuks, and in the 13th-14th centuries it was conquered by the Mongols. – Mongols. Persia as an independent state existed since 1501 and was a monarchy. After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the Islamic Republic of Iran (theocratic republic) was proclaimed. The head of state (spiritual leader) is an ayatollah, who controls the head of the executive (president) and the legislative authority (Majlis). Most of the country is located in the Iranian highlands – high plains with deserts (the Desht Kavir, the Desht-Lut, etc.). In the north, there is the Alborz Mountains (up to 5604 m high and Demavend Volcano), while in the north. On the west, lies the Zagros Mountains; along the coasts of the Persian and Oman Gulfs, lies the Hermsir Desert. Dry subtropical climate, tropical on the south coast. The only navigable river Karun. Lakes Urmia, Van, etc.. Vegetation is of deserts and semi-deserts, and on the northern slopes of the Elburz River – humid subtropical (Hyrcanian) forests. National Parks Kewir, Gulistan, Urmia etc., and Turan Reserve. 65% of the population is Persian, 18% – Azerbaijanis, and 5% – Kurds. Official language is Persian. 90% of the believers are Shia Muslims. The city’s population is 55% (1994). The Iraq war of 1980-88 caused great damage to the economy. Per capita national income dropped to $1,250 (1978 – over $3,000), high unemployment (20% of active population). Main branches are oil and gas production and refining; others depend on raw materials imports for 60%, and equipment for 90%. Chemical industry, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, machine building and metalworking, food industry, textile industry. Handicrafts. Cereals (wheat, barley, rice) and beans, cotton, sugar beet, tobacco, tea are grown. Gardens, melons, vineyards. Extensive animal husbandry (sheep, goats, cattle, camels, etc.). Silk farming, sea fish breeding. Roads 60,000 km, railways 6,000 km. Universities (Tehran, Isfahan). Darius Palace, a Muslim tomb in Mashhad, numerous mosques (including one in Isfahan), dil. Persepolis (near Shiraz). Monetary unit. – rial. Iran

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Islamic Republic of Iran A state in southwestern Asia. It borders on Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan in the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east and Iraq and Turkey in the west. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea in the north and the Gulf of Oman, the Strait of Hormuz and the Persian Gulf in the south. The area of the country is about 1648000 km2. Much of Iran is occupied by the central plateau, which is about 1,200 m above sea level and almost completely surrounded by mountain ranges. In the north, parallel to the shore of the Caspian Sea, are the Elbrus Mountains, where the highest point of the country – Mount Demavand (5604 m) – is located. Along the western border, the Zagros Mountains extend southeastward to the Persian Gulf. To the east of the plateau lie lower mountains. Relatively flat areas are a narrow coastal strip along the Caspian Sea and the Khuzistan Plain in the west. In the center of the state are two vast deserts: the sand-and-rock Dasht-i-Lut and the salt Dasht-i-Kavir. Both deserts are virtually uninhabited. In winter and spring, small rivers flow into the Dasht-i-Kavir Desert, while during the rest of the year both deserts are extremely arid. Most Iranian rivers dry up during the dry season. The main non-drying rivers, mostly short, originate in the foothills in the north or south of the country and flow into the Caspian Sea. Persian Gulf or Gulf of Oman. The Karoun River is the main navigable river of the country. There are few large lakes in Iran, and they mostly dry up during the dry season. The largest lake that lies entirely within Iran is Lake Urmia (Rezaie) in the north of the country. The population of Iran (1998 estimate) is about 68960000 people, with an average population density of about 49 people per km2. Ethnic groups: Persians 51%, Azeris 24%, Gilaks and Mazandarans 8%, Kurds 7%, Arabs 3%, Lurs 2%, Balochs 2%, Turkmen 2%. Language: Farsi (New Persian) (state language), Turkic, Kurdish. Religion: Shiites – 95% (state religion), Sunni – 4%, Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, Baha’is. The capital is Tehran. The largest cities are Tehran (6830000 inhabitants), Mashhad (2011000), Isfahan (1915000), Tabriz (994000), Shiraz (848000). State system is an Islamic republic. The spiritual head of state is Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei (from June 4, 1989). The secular head of state is President Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani (from August 3, 1989, re-elected in 1993). The monetary unit is the Iranian rial. Average life expectancy (as of 1998): 67 years for men, 68 years for women. Birth rate (per 1,000 people)- 31.4. The mortality rate (per 1,000 people) – 6.2. In the middle of the first millennium BC. Cyrus the Great created the Persian Empire, which lasted until 333 BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. In the next century Persia regained its independence and the Persian kingdom existed until the seventh century AD. With the advent of Islam on Persian territory, the country was incorporated into the Medina and later the Damascus Caliphate. The old Zoroastrian religion of Persia all but disappeared, completely suppressed by Islam. In the eleventh century Iran was invaded by the Turks and later by the Seljuks, Genghis Khan’s Mongols, Tamerlane’s army and the Turkmens, who stayed in Iran the longest, until 1502. In 1502, Iran regained its independence with the advent of the Persian Safavid dynasty, which ruled the country until 1722.

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Shah Abbas I, who ruled in the second quarter of the 17th century, was the greatest ruler of this dynasty. After his death the gradual decline of the country began, leading to the conquest of Iran by the Afghan army in 1722. Within a few years, however, a new dynasty was founded, leading Iran to relative prosperity. In 1906 a constitutional monarchy was proclaimed in Iran, which lasted until 1979, when Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown from the throne. In January of the same year, Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed Iran an Islamic republic. Khomeini’s rule was marked by an international scandal in which American diplomats were taken hostage in Tehran in November 1979, as well as a “fatua” – a death sentence – for the British writer of Indian origin, Salman Rushdie, who wrote a book called Satanic Verses, which allegedly insulted Islam. In 1993, Rafsanjani confirmed the verdict. Iran is a member of the UN, IMF, WHO, and OPEC. Climatically Iran can be divided into three regions: the very hot coast of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; the moderate but arid climate of the central highlands; and the cold climate in the Elburz Mountains. The average January temperature in Teheran (in the center of the country) ranges from -3°C to 7°C, while the average temperature in July ranges from 22°C to 37°C. In Abadan (on the Persian Gulf coast) – from 7 ° C to 17 ° C in January and from 28 ° C to 44 ° C in July. The average annual precipitation is about 250 mm in Tehran and less than 200 mm in Abadan. There are forested areas in the Zagros Mountains with oak, walnut, elm, and pistachio trees. The vegetation on the slopes of the Elbur Mountains facing the sea and in the Caspian Valley is very rich: a large number of ash, elm, elm, oak, birch and some evergreens. Cacti and thorns grow in the desert areas. Fauna is represented quite widely: rabbit, fox, wolf, hyena, jackal, leopard, deer, porcupine, ibex (mountain goat), bear, tiger, badger. Among the birds in the center of the country are a large number of pheasants and partridges, on the coast of the Persian Gulf – flamingos and pelicans. The Caspian Sea is home to beluga, herring and sturgeon. Iran also has several interesting museums with rich collections: Bastan Museum with exhibits of archaeology from ancient Persian cities, Negarestan Museum with a collection of Iranian art objects from the Persian Empire period, Ethnological Museum. Carpet Museum, National Art Museum, all in Tehran; Qom Museum and Pars Museum in Shiraz. Among the historical and architectural attractions in Tehran it is necessary to note: the Imam Mosque; the shrine of Aqa; Apiyabad, the burial place of Ayatollah Khomeini; Shahiyad Tower 45 meters high, built in 1971 as a gate leading to the capital. In Urmia (birthplace of Prophet Zoroaster) – Jama Mosque and the Mosque of the Three Domes. In Tabriz – Blue Mosque (13th century); Citadel (14th century). In Hamadan – the tomb of Esther and the tomb of Avicenna. In Qom (holy city of Muslims) – the shrine of Fatima, sister of Imam Reza. In Isfahan – Royal Mosque Masd-jid-i-Shah of XVII century, Masjid-i-Shaykh Lutfulla Mosque, a royal garden with a throne room on 40 columns, the school of dervishes Shah-Hussain, founded in 1710. In Shiraz – Mosque Masd-jid-i Jama (IX century); tomb of Persian poets Hafiz and Saadi. In Nishair – the tomb of Omar Khayyam. In Mashhad (the holy city of Shia Muslims), the tomb of Ali al-Rida and the tomb of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. All Iranian cities have large, colorful Oriental bazaars.

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