Ireland country


Ireland is located on the island of the same name, washed by the Atlantic Ocean to the south, west and north, and separated from the island of Great Britain by the Irish Sea to the east. The state is bordered by Great Britain – by sea and, with Northern Ireland, by land. The system of the state is defined by the Constitution of 1937, according to which Ireland is a parliamentary republic. Member of the European Union.

The vast majority of the population is Irish, the largest Celtic nation. About 90% of the Irish are Roman Catholic. During the centuries of English colonization they almost lost their native language, which has been revived purposefully since the restoration of independence in the early 20th century. At the beginning of the XXI century English remained the dominant language, and Irish in everyday life was used only by some inhabitants of the remote western and southern rural areas.

Among the main monuments of the country there are ancient monuments of Christian architecture: monasteries of V-XII centuries in Glendaloch and Kels, Romanesque churches of XI-XII centuries in Clonmacnois and Clonfert, Gothic churches of XII-XIV centuries like St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin. The main attractions are concentrated in Dublin: the National Museum, which contains exhibits of the early Christian period in Ireland – the brooch of Tara, the sacred bell of Moylo (VIII century) and others; the National Gallery with a collection of paintings of all schools of painting. Two 19th-century cathedrals stand out in Cork: St. Mary’s Roman Catholic and St. Finbar’s Anglican.


Pre-Christian Ages.

The Irish, who make up the vast majority of the country’s population, are descendants of Celtic tribes and older local people. The penetration of the Celts into Ireland began about the middle of the first millennium B.C., with the former population existing in almost all parts of the island and long retaining their system and customs. Cultures also interpenetrated: the Bregon Laws, which are considered the oldest monument of Irish writing, probably reflect some elements of the pre-Celtic way of life.

Ancient Irish society lived in clans. All land was in the common possession of the clan. The main occupation was cattle breeding. A significant role in the judicial process was played by the Bregons – judges – who had existed since the beginning of our era.

The first island-wide alliance was the Pentarchy, a union of five kingdoms (tuathas, pentinas) – Ulad (Ulster), Connacht (Konnaut), Lagen (Leinster), Muman (Munster) and Mide (Mith), with the king of the latter being the supreme king (ard-riag). As a result of constant struggle between the various dynasties, seven relatively independent kingdoms emerged by the year 400, which existed intermittently until the beginning of the 17th century. Combined forces of kings attacked the Romans in Britain and on the continent in the fourth and fifth centuries. In one of these robberies, St. Patrick, who was destined to become the enlightener of Ireland, was taken prisoner.

The Island of Saints and Scholars: Rise and Fall

The thirty-year apostolic exploits of St. Patrick in the middle of the fifth century were a turning point in the history of the country and the people – within a few generations Ireland was transformed from a pagan to a Christian land. Under numerous monasteries, learning and the arts flourished, which became a light for the neighboring countries – England, Scotland and the mainland. Sixth- and seventh-century Ireland is called the “Island of Saints and Scholars” and retains its role as a leading center of Christian enlightenment until the end of the eighth century.

Beginning in 795, Ireland began to be threatened by Viking raids, known here as “Danes. Given the political fragmentation of Ireland’s clan kingdoms, the Vikings soon gained a foothold: by 850 they had taken Dublin, Waterford and Limerick, which they turned into centers of trade and strongholds for raids on other parts of the country. A century later the country was hit hardest by the invasion of the “Danes”, which overlapped with the feuds of the Irish kings and culminated in the battle of Clontarf in 1014. The Irish High King Brien Boroimae fell in battle, but his forces were victorious and Viking raids were not repeated.

Within a year and a half of Brien Boroimet’s death, the old order of the country’s life was breaking down. The power of the kings was weakening, and the minor clans subordinate to them were gaining more and more strength. The last legitimate supreme king who ruled in effect was Ruaidri Wah Conkhobair from 1166-1183, with Dublin as his capital. Frequent wars contributed to the feralization of the population and rendered it incapable of resisting foreign invaders. In the same era the old ecclesiastical foundations were also changing: the Church was being reorganized along mainland lines, freed from the power of kings and clans, and more firmly subordinated to the authority of the popes. The break with Orthodoxy left the Irish Church a Roman Catholic archdiocese.

English Rule 1: The Lordship of Ireland

In the mid-1150s Pope Adrian IV, an Englishman, entrusted Ireland – which he considered papal property – to King Henry II of England. The occasion for the invasion was given by Diarmytus Mac Moorhad, the Irish king of Leinster, who had been driven from his dominions and went to seek help in England. Henry provided help, and in 1169-1170 the conquerors conquered the towns of Wexford, Waterford, and Dublin. Since the conquest rested on papal authority, it was particularly easy for the clergy to submit to it. In 1172 Henry convened a council at Cashel for the purpose of reforming the Church of Ireland, at which he claimed dominion over Ireland. The rulers of Leinster and Munster obeyed quickly, and in October 1175 even the supreme king, Ruaidhri Wah Conchobair, after stubborn resistance, had to recognize himself as a vassal and tribute to the English crown.

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Nominally the whole of Ireland became one lordship under the English king. In reality there were two radically different territories. One was The English Pale, in which the English barons took possession of the lands given to them in the form of fiefdoms, expelled the native chieftains, and imposed English rules, under which a royal viceroy and his own parliament operated. The rest of Ireland was called “Wild Ireland,” where the English were constantly striving to make new conquests. Wars with the natives, the arbitrariness and infighting of the barons under weak royal authority turned Ireland into an arena of disorder and desolation. When Robert the Bruce seized the Scottish crown and successfully waged war with England, Irish leaders turned to him for help against the common enemy. His brother, Edward the Bruce, arrived in Ireland with an army in 1315 and was proclaimed king by the Irish, but after a devastating three-year war was killed in battle. After that came a period of even worse anarchy and arbitrary rule by the Norman feudal lords.

Over time the Anglo-Norman colonists began to mix with the Irish, which threatened to undermine the basis of English rule. In 1367 a statute was passed in Kilkenny to completely separate the colonists of Vygodka from the core Celtic population. Gradually the native Irish rulers came back to prominence in local politics. During the Wars of the Scarlet and White Rose in the second half of the fifteenth century, Ireland for the most part sided with the House of York, but the power of the English over Ireland during this internecine war weakened even more. By the time the Tudors came to the English throne in 1485, the new rulers were faced with the task of re-subduing Ireland. King Henry VII sent an army to Ireland, which arrested the prominent Yorkist Gerald of Kildare and secured the nominal adoption of the full body of English laws in 1495. Under his son, the reforming King Henry VIII, the sequential “Tudor conquest of Ireland” began.

English Rule 2: The Kingdom of Ireland

After giving way to the Reformation in his dominions, Henry VIII was confronted in Ireland by the rebellion of the Earl of Kildare, who proclaimed himself a supporter of Roman Catholicism. The revolt was put down, and in 1542 Henry VIII transformed the government of Ireland by proclaiming himself king and Ireland his second kingdom. By recognizing property rights to members of the clans and granting some of them land confiscated from the monasteries, he ensured clan support for his authority. After a brief restoration of official Roman Catholicism under Queen Mary in 1553-1558, Queen Elizabeth I instituted the Reformation everywhere, confiscating all the wealth of the Roman Catholic churches in favor of the new Anglican clergy. From then on, Irish revolts under the banner of allegiance to Roman Catholicism and the struggle to overthrow the English yoke became a regular occurrence.

Riots began in 1560, with Hugh O’Neill’s rebellion in 1595-1603 being particularly serious. The revolts were suppressed so harshly that Ireland began to be devastated – the Irish died or fled abroad. Land confiscated from them was distributed to English colonists, with the result that by the time of Elizabeth’s death all of Ireland was subordinate to the English crown. King James I continued the Elizabethan policy. The response on October 23, 1641, was a terrible massacre of thousands of English Protestants and a new rebellion led by Rory O’More and Felim O’Neill. The then-formed “General Association of Catholic Confederates” won a series of victories over King Charles’s troops, and the royal viceroy Ormonde was forced in 1647 to put power in the hands of representatives of parliament.

On August 12, 1649, the English revolutionary leader Oliver Cromwell landed in Ireland with a punitive expedition, which was marked by a terrifying massacre of the population of the towns of Droed and Wexford. When the Irish surrendered, the British exacerbated previous policies: Parliament confiscated almost all Roman Catholic possessions (outside Connacht) and began a new settlement of Ireland, mostly from among Cromwell’s retired soldiers. Many Irishmen were driven off the land, many of them sent as slaves to the West Indies. The restoration of royal authority in 1660 did little to change the unhappy situation of the Catholic Irish. A brief Roman Catholic reaction, which began with the accession to the throne of King James II in 1685, caused great joy among the Irish, but ended in James’s defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. The Treaty of Limerick in 1691 guaranteed Roman Catholics some rights, but the Protestant Irish Parliament was extremely hostile to them. All Roman Catholic clerics other than parish priests were immediately expelled from Ireland, and ordinary believers were increasingly disadvantaged over time. In response, from the middle of the eighteenth century, secret societies began to form, which have played a major role in Irish history ever since. This self-organization forced the English crown at a time of its weakness-the years of the American War of Independence-to make concessions in 1782, when the Irish parliament gained legislative independence and somewhat softened the position of Catholics. In 1798, in coordination with France, the Irish staged a new rebellion, which was crushed that year.

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English Rule 3: Union with Great Britain

By bribing parliamentarians in 1800 the Irish parliament adopted a “final” union with Great Britain. In 1801 it came into force and Ireland was united with Great Britain in a single United Kingdom. The Irish were now required to send their representatives to the English parliament, but had virtually no influence. In 1845-1847 Ireland was dealt a terrible blow by a bad potato harvest that killed about a million peasants and devastated many landowners. The famine, the sale of land and the increase in rents by land speculators led to an unprecedented exodus: while the Irish had previously been leaving the country in droves, about a million people were emigrating at the same time. The government found no solution to the famine and was accused of criminal indifference and genocide. In 1848 a revolt by the Young Ireland Society followed. The rebellion was defeated, but the formation of an influential Irish revolutionary society, the Fenians, with a base among the Irish in the United States, soon led British parliamentarians to seriously consider the “Irish question”.

From 1868, reforms began to address the root evils of Irish discontent – the church and land issues. Gladstone’s Irish Church Bill of 1869 relegated the Irish Episcopal (Anglican) Church to the same level as the other confessions, and the Land Bill of 1870 satisfied in the main points the just complaints of Irish tenants against landowners. The reforms inhibited but did not eradicate the independence movement, which took shape in the form of moderate “Homeruleers,” who sought self-government, and radical “Fenians”-revolutionaries. The two movements merged in 1880 under the leadership of Charles Stuart Parnell. In 1886, the Irish supported the liberal Gladstone for the nomination as Prime Minister of Great Britain, after which Gladstone proposed an Act of self-government for Ireland. After the general election in 1910, the Irish Party, led by John Redmond, again had the opportunity to play on the contradictions of the Liberals and Conservatives in the House of Commons and the government proposed by that time a third bill of self-government in 1912. The House of Lords, which had prevented previous such attempts, was now limited in its ability to influence the vote.

By this time the opposing forces had already prepared for the coming civil war. The Unionists of Ulster, the heartland of Irish industry where 60% of Ireland’s Protestant population was concentrated, had organized a paramilitary organization, the Ulster Volunteers, to fight for the preservation of British unity. Nationalists in the south also formed the Irish National Volunteers. World War I delayed the outbreak of civil war, although there was an Easter Rising in 1916, violently suppressed by British naval artillery.

Restoration of Independence

On January 21, 1919, 73 members of the English Parliament, declaring themselves the plenipotentiary Parliament of Ireland, adopted a declaration of the sovereignty of Ireland, proclaiming the Irish Republic. At the same time as the first sessions of the new parliament took place, the first shots were fired in the guerrilla war for independence. The confrontation between the Irish and the British continued until December 6, 1921, when the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed on December 6, 1921. The treaty was a compromise that recognized the division of Ireland into Northern Ireland (Ulster) as part of Great Britain and the Irish Free State, which was formally proclaimed on December 6, 1922.

Until 1949 the new state was part of the British Commonwealth of Nations. In 1937 it was officially named Ireland (Eire), and in 1949 – the Irish Republic. In 1973 Ireland joined the European Economic Community (from 1993 – the European Union).


  • 1695 – 1 034 thousand people
  • 1754 – 2,372,600 people
  • 1801 – 5,395,500 people
  • 1821 – According to the first accurate census: 6 801.8 thousand people
  • 1841 – 8 196.6 thousand people
  • The turn of the 19th-20th centuries. – Roman Catholics constitute 75.4% of the population, have 4 archbishops, 23 bishops, 2,700 priests, approx. 1,000 parishes; Anglican Episcopalians make up 12.8% of the population, have 2 archbishops, 11 bishops, 1,700 parish priests; Presbyterians make up 9.5% of the population; Methodists 55,500, Independents 1,707, Jews 1,798. The province of Ulster accounts for 60% of the total Protestant population [1]
  • 1901 – Census population: 4,458,800 [2]
  • 2001 – Census population: 3.8 million, c. 92% are Irish


Despite occasional pockets of Christian penetration, until the early 5th century most Irish continued to worship pagan gods under the guidance of Druid priests. The Roman bishop Caelestine sent Bishop Palladius to Ireland, after whose untimely death St. Patrick was sent after him in the early 430s. Over the next 30 years, the saint converted many Irishmen to Christ, from kings to ordinary peasants, laying a solid foundation and establishing the original structure of the distinctive Irish Church, headed by the Archbishop of Armagh.

Bishops were not raised in cities but in monasteries, which soon became the leading centers of learning not only in the country but in all of northwestern Europe. The enlightenment of the country with the light of Christ proceeded rapidly and was accompanied not only by the spread of learning throughout the country, but also by the appearance of many saintly ascetics. Up to the end of the 8th century Orthodox Ireland remained one of the main centers of Christian enlightenment, “an island of saints and scholars. The preaching of Irish missionary monks, whose main hotbed was the Monastery of Iona, spread to Scotland, England and the mainland. Among the Irish reverend preachers of that era are St. Columba and St. Columban.

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In the following centuries of Viking invasions and internecine strife the old ecclesiastical foundations of Ireland gradually loosened, scholarship waned, and the power of the Roman pope grew. The falling away of the Roman Church from Orthodoxy made the Irish Church a Roman Catholic archdiocese. Almost simultaneously with the beginning of the Anglo-Norman takeover of the country, a major church reform was undertaken. At the Council of Droed in 1152 the primacy of the pope was confirmed, the old clannish bishops were replaced by a system of four metropolises under the Archbishop of Armagh. The dependence of church structures on kings and clans decreased, and the power of the pope increased.

From the beginning of the Reformation in the lands of the English crown in the 1530s, Ireland was defined as a Roman Catholic community. Despite the imposition of Anglicanism over the following centuries, only a small proportion of the Irish adhered to the Anglican Irish Episcopal Church, which retained its status as the state church until 1869.

Today the Irish population remains overwhelmingly Roman Catholic by religion-more than 95%. The rest are Anglicans, Presbyterians, and others. Ireland remains one of the most religious countries in Europe, supporting missionary activity throughout the world. In recent decades, however, there has been a growing development of extra-church life. Thus, with the consent of the Roman Catholic Church itself, a 1972 referendum removed from the constitution a clause recognizing the special role of the Catholic Church in Ireland; a 1992 amendment allowed Irish women to travel abroad for abortions; another amendment, barely passed in 1995, allowed divorce. In the last decades of the twentieth century, thanks to emigrant communities, Orthodoxy re-emerged in Ireland, represented primarily in Dublin.

Ireland is a bridge between America and Europe. How does a religious country that suddenly became an IT cluster live?

Eugene Koltsov has been living in Dublin for four years. He has worked for TileStyle, AirBnB, and is now a Senior Data Analyst at Buymie. He told us about the peculiarities of Ireland, a country-village in which divorce was banned not so long ago, and now wages are higher than in England. The need for empty conversations, the “domes” of IT giants, swimming in the sea in winter, life in estates, and why people from here often go back to Moscow for treatment.

About me

I was born in Samara. After university I moved to Moscow. For 10 years I was involved in big projects, implemented 1C.

I tried several times to get to Ireland, was searching for something to do here. It is clear that 1C did not suit. Even if you are a very qualified expert, this system in the West is just not in demand. They are not looking for such people, companies need relevant experience with the platform they need. Tried looking for work on other ERP and CRM systems. Unfortunately, that turned out to be too difficult, too: you need connections and experience. Technical skills are required less, no one can verify them remotely at the interview.

I ended up getting a job with a small start-up Irish company as a project manager. Had an interview remotely. Successfully completed that project and decided to try my hand at data analytics. By and large, when you implement ERP systems, you also perform these tasks, so there was some knowledge. I had an interview at Airbnb for a contract position (with a possibility to move to a permanent position). The role suited me fine, I liked it very much. I worked there for a year.

But just as I was about to be transferred to permanent, the coronavirus hit. First Airbnb froze any transfers to permanent positions. Then they laid off all contractors. And then they laid off 25% of the core staff, including my team, almost everyone I worked with.

Now I got a job at Byumie, an Irish-Armenian startup that buys big baskets from the supermarket and delivers them to customers. Here I’m a Senior Data Analyst, serving all teams, from operations and finance to product. Basically I help product managers to improve service, recommend what steps to take to improve business performance.

Features of Ireland: What not everyone knows

Ireland has always been the margins of Europe. That’s why you won’t find gigantic royal castles here. But now it’s a plus for the country, because it became a bridge between Europe and the United States. Or, if you want, a branch of America in Europe.

For example, it is manifested in the fact that the vast majority of people here live in estates. That is, it’s not mostly apartments and apartments that are built here, but individual houses, townhouses. Often it’s a certain area built by some company. There are 1-2 entrances to it, where a closed community is formed. For example, where I live is called Honey Park. And people call themselves residents of Honey Park, not of a particular street or house.

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In Ireland, small talk is very important. Here it is almost a formal requirement. You need to talk about the weather, the kids, plans for the weekend, various little things. Small talk is necessary in order to build normal relationships with any counterpart: the doctor, the receptionist, the hairdresser, the concierge, whoever. That’s the mentality. Otherwise you will be seen as uncivilized and not a very nice person. Believe me, small talk here will make your life a lot easier.

Because many Russians don’t understand Irish English very well, they often don’t get on well with random people. And hence there are bad impressions of Ireland in general. I have found that it is important here to be able to communicate a little bit, even with strangers.

Irish English has a very different pronunciation from British or American English. There are so many different accents: in Dublin, in Cork, in the north, in the south of Ireland. Different accents, different pronunciations of letters (“bus” is “bus”, “very much” is “verry much”, “hat” is “hut”). It is impossible to accept it at once. I have good English, but even after a year of work I did not understand 10-20% of my colleagues, especially in conversations “in the smoking room”. But on the whole in IT companies there are less problems with this: there are fewer native Irish people here, so ordinary English is more common.

Cliff walk is very popular in Ireland. It is a common entertainment here: a walk on a high cliff by the sea. It’s always close, no matter where you live. Nearby there will be a beach and small cafes where you can stop and enjoy the scenery.

Ireland is a very conservative country. After independence from Great Britain there was a religious democracy for a long time. And now there are still many different traditions, customs. It is still a very Catholic country, it is important to understand that it is different from secular or Protestant. For example, to get a divorce, you had to live apart for four years. And only then would you be divorced. Divorce wasn’t even allowed here until 1996.

The holidays – Easter, Christmas – play a huge role. All the locals congratulate you, you have to take part in it to be part of the community. My daughter at school is always preparing something for these events. A lot of schools are Catholic, with religion classes. There are quite a few separate schools for boys and girls.

On the other hand, things are changing. In 2019, they simplified the rules for divorce (now 2 years of separation is enough). The ban on abortion has been lifted. In 2015, a popular vote allowed same-sex marriage. Recently in a referendum the law on insulting the feelings of believers was completely abolished. The country has chosen the path of tolerance and technological progress.

Why Ireland? The advantages of the country

Ireland is now the European Silicon Valley. All the major IT giants are headquartered here. Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple. They are actively looking for employees. And they take care of everything for your relocation. The main thing is to have the right skills and get an interview. From what I see – mostly Software Engineers are moving. Business Analysts and others relocate much harder.

The salaries are not as high as in America, but for Europe are very solid. Even more than in Britain. On average, a normal person here gets about 45,000 euros a year. And a Senior Software Engineer is about 75,000 euros. Almost twice the national average. But I know people who come here and get 100,000 euros or more right away. Of these, about 35-50% will have to give in taxes (depends on the family, children, salary and other factors). But in Europe it is inevitable.

Excellent ecology. The country has almost no industrial plants, you are unlikely to find next to your home smoky pipes factory. Around on all sides is the sea, the air is pleasantly fresh. Many people have allergies here. The country is rural, people live in separate houses, they don’t stand in traffic jams. Before the IT boom, it was pure countryside, and in fact, everything remains the same, only the salaries have gone up.

Beautiful nature and mild climate. Even though we are in the north, there is no snow in winter in Ireland. The temperature does not drop below zero. In January it averages +6-7ºC. But, accordingly, and in summer there is no heat. The maximum is +25 ° C. The country is evergreen, there are many plants that bloom, including in January and February. Traveling by bicycle is wonderful all year round. We have the Zhigulevsky Nature Reserve in Samara, it’s well known in the area. So here the whole country reminds me of such a reserve.

Now we have lockdown, we can go only 5 km away from home. This distance includes the sea. You can swim in it both in winter and summer. The sea is not warm but not cold either. In March and February, the water temperature is higher than the air temperature (about 10ºC), and people like to swim here. Some of the people who moved here also take part in it, keep themselves toned. I do not really like it, I’m used to hot seas. My daughter, on the other hand, at age 5, swims calmly.

There’s no crime at all. Ireland is a small country, with a population of only 5 million people. It is actively developing, mainly due to IT firms, but the atmosphere is very calm and quiet. Again, a big village. If something is stolen from someone, it becomes a whole story in the newspapers.

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After 5 years of continuous residence in the country, you can apply for citizenship. Its approval takes another 1-2 years. I now have a residence permit, it allows all the same things as a citizen, but it must be renewed every year, and to travel around the world as an Irishman is not possible. In general, with a residence permit from the employer feel very comfortable here.

I think the biggest mistake of those who move to another country – to think that communication with friends and relatives will continue as before. But once you move, you can’t visit, you need a visa and money. To communicate constantly on Skype – not that. You have to create a circle of friends from scratch. Well, it’s great in Ireland. I live in the south of Dublin, there are a lot of IT people from Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. We get along very well. I created a community on Telegram, there are about a hundred families there. I do not feel isolated from my homeland, there is enough communication in Russian, I have made my own circle of friends too.

Why not Ireland: What do you need to know before you move?

Google office in Dublin.

There are two Ireland. If you work for an IT giant, you essentially live under its dome. You go to the pool there, you eat out, you go home. But if you work for small companies, outside of this dome, the salary is lower, it is difficult to find a job, you have to actively build partnerships, worry about your own career growth. Often people end up going back disappointed: the cool and perpetually carefree life didn’t work out. If you get thrown out of the dome, you immediately feel a very strong downgrade.

Ireland is a welfare state. There are high benefits for unemployment, disability, childcare, and so on. This is kind of good (no crime – what’s the point if there are enough benefits?). But on the other hand – high taxes. And there are quite a few families who are forever living only on benefits. It is unpleasant to watch such a thing.

80% of people who have moved complain that they can not transpose their life in Moscow on what happens in Ireland. There is much less entertainment, exhibitions, museums, and various events. It would seem that this is the European Union – but there is no Schengen and it’s difficult to get one. The dream of traveling from Ireland is difficult to achieve.

Any medical care goes through your GP (general practitioner). In case of any health problem you go to him, and he refers you to a particular specialist. If you have no experience in Irish English, if you do not know small talk, there are problems with the fact that the doctor does not refer people to certain tests. This can only be resolved with experience and time. The amount of money will not affect it. As a result I know stories that some people go to Russia for treatment – so they don’t have to wait for the tests. They combine it with visits to relatives and friends. Otherwise you can wait half a year or even a year.

Rent is expensive. In Ireland, the real estate crisis is booming. The country is small, the last 10 years, there is a huge flow of immigration – from the European Union, from India, from Russia. The real estate market cannot cope with this. It’s hard to find an apartment, especially a normal one. A one-bedroom in Dublin will cost from €1600-€2000 a month. For the average Irishman, this is more than half his salary.

Education is not perfect. Ireland is not a country of universities. There is no Oxford or Cambridge of its own. In large Russian cities, you can send your child to a specialized lyceum or gymnasium, which will open the way to the best universities in the country (or even the world). The humanities are more common in Ireland. I hope, when my daughter grows up, there will be more good options.

In general, there are few entertainments here, life is rustic, it is difficult to travel. After Moscow, you have to get used to a lower level of service. Some people who have moved here are in a kind of shock: They were expecting something different! If you are 25-35, don’t have children, and want new sensations, travel and socialising – I would recommend Britain, Germany or the USA. And those who come to Ireland are those who have children, who want to build a successful career, who want peace and stability.

For me, Ireland is a place where you can live peacefully. A country where you can be part of a world that is developing and growing. I can see that I like the recent changes. In the four years I’ve lived here, the country has obviously gotten better. It’s encouraging.

There is no chance here that the currency will depreciate, the country will leave the world community, and jobs cannot be found. I am confident in the future for myself and my daughter. If everyone else is so actively invested in this country, then I guess I am not the worst choice either.

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