Jacob’s Well is a deep hole in a shallow creek. Texas. USA

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In a spring near Wimberley, Texas, there is a network of underwater caves that have yet to be explored. The main entrance to the caves is a hole four meters in diameter, called Jacob’s Well. It is now a popular attraction where locals come to dive. The water is so clear that you can feel as if you are jumping into the abyss. But you need to be extremely careful – the underwater caves have buried quite a few divers who went to explore them. Jacob’s Well is only 10 meters deep, but it has at least four deeper offshoots, following one another.

Let’s take a closer look at it …

The first cave ends at a depth of 16 m. This cave is quite well lit, with fish and algae. The second cave is located at a depth of 24 m and has a very narrow entrance. This is the one to be afraid of! This is where divers most often die. The third cave has a small opening with loose gravel. Divers try to swim past it carefully without touching it. The way to the fourth cave is even more difficult – it is practically nobody explored, so it received the characteristic name “Virgin”.

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It seems that 10 meters is not the limit, but the well has many branches, which have not yet been studied. To date, recorded eight deaths of divers who died trying to explore the well.

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Today the source, which was previously considered eternal begins to dry out, but a few millennia ago, Jacob’s Well was a kind of geyser and a powerful stream of artesian water throbbed to a height of 10 meters. The lowering of the aquifer led to a lowering of the water level in the well. Since then (second half of the twentieth century) began the history of exploring the caves by diving.

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After that, in 1980, to prevent accidents the entrance to the well was blocked by installing bars of rebar and concreting one of the chambers of the cave, but it stopped the curious divers for a short time and all these additions were eventually removed. Nowadays, tourists often visit this spring and even dive into Jacob’s Well, for it is one of the most significant natural, geological treasures of the state of Texas.

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And here is another one by the way.

Jacob’s Well (Bir Ya’qub) is a deep (about 35 meters) well carved in the rock in Nablus.

In religious tradition, the well has been associated with Jacob for over two thousand years. Located near the archaeological site of Tel Balata (probably the Biblical Shechem) on the northwest side of Mount Garizim.

At present Jacob’s Well is in a crypt under the altar of a large Greek Orthodox church dedicated to Photinia of Samaria. The church is part of the Orthodox monastic complex.

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The well itself is revered not only by Christians, but also by Jews, Samaritans, and Muslims. It was on religious grounds that Abbot Philumen was brutally murdered here in 1979 by fanatical Jews, after which the killers desecrated the church, causing material damage as well

Here are more interesting and famous underwater caves: here’s a look at the Blue Grotto of Malta, and here’s the famous Orda Cave. Remember also about the Marble Caves of Chile and of course Dahab. Blue Hole and Dean’s Deepest Hole

One of the most dangerous places on earth – Jacob’s Well in Texas

Earlier here were published several photos of the well, but I would like to tell you a little more about this interesting place of the planet.

The photo shows two boys jumping into the abyss – this is Jacob’s Well, which is located in the state of Texas. This large artesian spring, 4 meters in diameter, springs from the most extensive underwater cave system in the state of Texas. Its water is so clear that it feels like flying into empty space when you jump in.

The well is about 10 meters deep, but at the bottom of it begins endless branches that are not fully explored. To date, eight divers have died while exploring them.

Jacob’s Well in Wimberley, Texas, is one of the most dangerous places on earth. Named after its biblical counterpart, this dangerous spring has already claimed the lives of eight divers, but even that does not scare the thrill seekers who made the decision to jump into it.

At first glance Jacob’s Well looks like a safe pool into which Cypress Creek flows. It is four meters in diameter and looks calm and safe. It has four caves that are several dozen feet below the surface.

A local dive store owner believes that these caves are the most dangerous thing about this well.

The first cave starts at a depth of 30 feet and ends at 55 feet. It is well lit and has plenty of fish and algae.

The second cave is 80 feet deep and has a narrow entrance that traps divers. It was there that Richard Patton, a student from Texas, died.

A small opening of loose gravel leads from the second cave to the third. The divers try not to touch it as they squeeze into the third cave.

The passage to the fourth cave is even more difficult. Few people have seen it, and that is why it is called the “virgin cave. At its bottom there are layers of limestone, and if you stir them up, it will be almost impossible to find the way out of the cave.

The well has long attracted divers, scientists, and artists. They are not afraid of the notoriety of the reservoir. It is as if it represents the essence of life, creating clean water every day for thousands of years.

. for scuba divers. Did you forget to finish? And if not, shove that jaundiced headline up your ass.

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There are thousands of the most dangerous places like this. We have a river in our village, which is about 20 meters wide in this unfortunate dangerous place. It doesn’t look like much, but its peculiarity is that on the bank there are a lot of tree roots that run along the bottom, there are also springs with a very strong current. And it seems that on the surface the current is not very big, but at depth it is very strong. The funny thing is that there was always a bungee cord stretched in that place and people were crowding there and having fun. In my memory for 5 years there has been drowned about 12 people, and who knows how many more for the previous periods. In the future, the agricultural sector has actively developed there, ponavlyvali fields and orchards fenced, and access to this place has now become a big mutar, probably 15 years there was not.

Throw in some floating drones and they’ll map the caves, no need to go there yourself.

Any bar in the neighborhood is more dangerous.

I guess I couldn’t translate it any better.

One of the most dangerous places on earth - Jacob's Well in Texas Dangerous Places, The Well, Sightseeing, Longpost

Pink pony world.

Commentary illustration

A bow in terms of physics.

Once upon a time, in a high school physics textbook, I encountered an assignment to describe the physical model of an onion. I don’t know what answer the writers planned to get, because, as you will see later in the post, an onion is not such a simple thing.

Let’s say we want to make an onion. And not just any onion, but a good onion. The first thing we will make sure is that the bow is tight.

The tighter the bow, the harder it will push the arrow. Of course, it will be difficult to stretch it. But this is a matter of practice.

At first glance it seems simple – you have to take a thicker stick. But let’s look at the bow from the side:

Pink Pony World.

And now let’s stretch it:

Pink Pony World.

It is easy to see that the outer side stretches and the inner side shrinks. And this effect is stronger the thicker our bow is:

Pink Pony World.

Wood can elastically deform – both stretching and compressing – only to a degree. After that, the fibers on the outside will start to burst, and on the inside they will go “in waves”. Of course, this is not good for anything.

We can’t stretch the bow very far – we need the force to last as long as possible. So what’s the solution? Make the bow itself as long as possible, so that the curvature is not so noticeable:

Pink Pony World.

That’s how you get a longbow. The most famous English longbow is from the 13th-14th century, but generally speaking, long bows have been around since the Paleolithic era. That’s understandable – taking a longer stick isn’t a goddamn invention.

Pink Pony World.

A bow from the Shnideyoch Pass (Alps) is dated 2900-2700 BC. It is 162 cm long – quite a longbow, considering the average height at the time.

However, the longbow has a number of disadvantages, the most significant of which is the difficulty of using it on horseback.

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The Japanese made a clever bow with shoulders of different lengths – a short lower one and a long upper one:

Pink Pony World.

But the Central Asians of the steppe went the other way, inventing the composite bow. The outside consisted of animal veins, which stretch well, and the inside consisted of horn or bone, which compresses better. It is unclear whether the reason for this invention was the desire to strengthen the bow or the need to reduce the amount of scarce wood. But whatever the case, in the end they managed to get a fairly powerful, yet compact bow.

The first composite bows were known in the times of the Scythians, and go back to the Neolithic. But its evolution was going on all the time of its existence, so that the Mongolian or Turkish bow was much more developed than the Scythian one.

Pink Pony World.

On the left is the Mongolian bow, on the right – the earlier Gun

It is easy to notice that the steppe bow is characterized not only by its structure, but also by its special shape, which includes a reverse bend. In archery terminology, such a bow is called a recursive bow. Why is it necessary? Let’s get to the bottom of it.

If we take a straight (conventional) bow and start pulling it, the applied force will increase. Simply put, the harder we stretch, the harder it gets. You can draw a graph:

Pink Pony World.

So, the work done, or what’s the same, the accumulated potential energy, is the area under the graph:

Pink Pony World.

This is actually called a definite integral, but I don’t want to scare readers :)

As we can see, the picture is far from optimal. The ideal would be like this:

Pink Pony World.

It turns out that we need a bow that has the same applied force throughout.

This is exactly what the recursive bow is trying to achieve. When we pull it, the center part bends first. Then, as the force on the center part increases and the angle of the bowstring changes, the shoulders begin to bend and finally the ends themselves.

Pink Pony World.

Thus, the applied force changes within a smaller range and the graph becomes closer to the optimum:

Pink Pony World.

As a result, a recursive bow will be more efficient with the same pulling force.

And just pulling the bow with more or less constant force, in my humble onion experience, is somehow more pleasant. However, perhaps this is a matter of taste.

Now let’s see what happens when we lower the bowstring. Some of the potential energy will go into the kinetic energy of the arrow, but all of it?

Unfortunately, no. Even if we ignore losses such as heat, sound, and material fatigue, there is a purely mechanical loss. The point is that after the bowstring is dropped, the bow straightens, i.e. the shoulders of the bow come into motion. Movement = work = energy loss.

In that sense, the lighter the bow arms and the less they move, the less precious potential energy will be lost and the more of it will go into the motion of the arrow.

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But that’s not all. Remember, in last week’s article it was discussed that hand throwing objects has a limited speed, so no projectile will fly faster than your hand?

It’s the same problem with the bow. The straightening speed, while great, is still limited. And there is no way to make the arrow go faster, no matter how powerful the bow is.

The block bow solves both of these problems:

Pink Pony World.

First, most of the bow is static, with only the very ends of the shoulders bent, which means less loss of straightening.

Second, the blocks allow the arrow to get several times the speed of the shoulders straightening. It works as a polycoupler, only inversely – at the expense of loss in force we get gain in speed.

And at the same time the problem of constant pulling force is solved.

Modern block bows have a lot of devices that facilitate aiming and shooting: shelf, release (bowstring release device), sighting slat, all sorts of vibration absorbers. This allows modern sportsmen to reach the results that even the historic “Robin Hoods” could not dream of. However, this sports tool looks like a historical weapon only remotely.

Since the topic came up unexpectedly, I thought I would look at a couple more weapons. And for today, thank you for your attention.

The Lord of the Rings series

The first series of “The Lord of the Rings: Rings of Power” so far gets the worst ratings in the history of premium series in the twenty-first century.

So far, the viewer score is 2.7 out of 10 ♂

The Onion from a physics perspective Physics, The Onion, Sciencepop, Longpost

Who doubted it would?)

For good measure.

Lord of the Rings TV series, Foreign TV series, TV series, Lord of the Rings, Amazon, Replay, New TV series, Lord of the Rings: Rings of Power

Happy birthday to Kianca Reeves.

♪ On a good day... ♪

Babakin and customer centricity

Came across a post a week ago, about how our favorite knife maker (without sarcasm) messed up with the knife, which he forgot to sharpen and how he got out of this situation, well, tell me and my story: Oh, just flashbacks …. Ordered a knife from Babakin in March, it was a birthday present from my wife. The order was made two months before the date, and the master promised to meet the deadline of 28 days (there were no problems with the material, all in stock). Did not hurry, once every 3 weeks to write a message that I have not been forgotten and further in anticipation. Worried 10 days before the day X. Babakin assured me that everything is normal and if anything he will just refund the money, etc. Two days before my birthday, after another reminder skimmed me track, well, of course, terms are screwed up and the master does not give a shit about me, but I’m waiting, cut this track still hangs in the mail system as assigned, but sending the post office is not accepted. A day after my birthday, I wrote in anger Babakin, that it is not worthy to behave this way and cheat me to put it mildly, and that he returned the money because the departure to the post office, but just remotely created the track, ok, returns….. listened to a story about SWO, negligent employee and the damn May holidays, which were so bad timing. I think ok, the money was returned, but I was waiting for 2 months for the knife (assuming that I should not have seen it in the process), not the wasted nerves and refunds. I wrote to the master and asked him to send me a picture of the knife, and he sent me a beautiful pchak. I melted heart at what I saw, included the master excuses mode (the child was born, the May holidays, etc.) Ok, I say, finish it, send, money will pay. Waiting has begun, and the track and not beats, I say Babakin in 10 days, go to the post office to find out how. Master writes: “Your knife was lost post office, I’ll make you the same one, and absolutely free, give me another month. Sin, happy at first, that the knife and get and the money will stay, but half of me saddled, badly said, for all you have to pay, I reasoned, but also said in advance the money did not go. Again, a month of waiting. The master writes that the knife is ready and will be sent in a minute. After another reminder to get the track and oh my god, it is tracked. I am waiting for the package like a child, it is still in the waiting room at the post office, and I am already sitting at the window, waiting. I take the package with trembling hands and rush to spouse, in my head long ago forgave the master for the mistakes. I tell my spouse, I’ll close my eyes, and you open it and hand it to me… the rustling of the package and her words, “And what is this….?” I felt like a kid who was promised a dandy for his birthday, and gave him a plastic gun without a trigger. Yes the knife, yes the pechak, but a different one, huge, crooked, with scratches and potholes on the blade and an incomprehensible bird. Which I did / remade was good and correct (judging by photos), according to my wishes, and this is a huge pchak with a lot of flaws … I immediately wrote all what I think the knife maker, to which he told me that this knife is a gift and for him to pay, that this work was done while he was young and I myself need to resharpen, although at that time Babakin invited himself to a free sharpening. So wait, and what you were re-sharpening my knife this month wait. You promised the same, well, according to the terms of reference! It turns out you were doing my head for a few months, and then pulled out of a dusty box illiquid, who the hell no one will buy who even know a little bit about knives. Well, I sent the money for the knife to the charity, because you always have to pay for the knife, which I told Babakin, and I can not take the knife in my hands, at first I wanted to throw it into the sea, but I changed my mind.

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