Mali – Republic of Mali State in West Africa

Mali – Republic of Mali State in West Africa

The Republic of Mali is a continental state in northwestern Africa. It borders Algeria, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Mauritania, Niger and. RIA Novosti, 18.08.2020

The Republic of Mali is a continental state in Northwest Africa. It borders on Algeria, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. The territory of Mali occupies 1,240 thousand square kilometers. The climate is subequatorial (in the south) and tropical. The average monthly temperature is from 20 to 35ºC. The main navigable rivers are the Niger and the Senegal. Most vegetation is desert and semi-desert, in the south it is savanna. Mali is divided into eight regions: Gao, Kai, Kidal, Koulikore, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso and Timbuktu. The capital is the city of Bamako. There are more than 19 million people in the country. The population consists of more than 20 ethnic groups: Bambara (30%), Pele (15%), Senufo (12%), Tuaregs and Moors (10%), etc. Over 90% of the population are Muslim, less than 2% are Christian, and the rest follow traditional beliefs. In the Middle Ages the states of Ghana, Mali, Songai, etc. emerged on the territory of Mali. In the mid-1890s to 1958 Mali had a French possession called French Sudan, which was divided among neighboring colonies in 1899-1920. In 1958, the autonomous Republic of Sudan was formed as part of the French Community. In 1959 it merged with the Republic of Senegal to form the Federation of Mali (independent since June 1960).After the dissolution of the Federation, Mali became an independent republic and left the Community in September 1960. The president of the republic became Modibo Keita – general secretary of the Sudanese Union Party, founded in 1946.In November 1968 there was a coup d’etat, the power went to the Military Committee for National Liberation (CMNL), headed by Musa Traore. In 1979 Mali transitioned to a civilian form of government and Traore became president of the country.In March 1991 there was a coup d’état, Traore was removed from power. In 1992 the transition to civilian rule was completed. In January 1992 a referendum approved the new draft constitution, which approved the form of government – a presidential republic. The president is elected by universal suffrage for five years (with the right of one re-election). The supreme legislative body is the unicameral parliament (National Assembly). In spring 1992 parliamentary and presidential elections were held. ADEMA became the parliamentary majority party, and its leader, Alpha Oumar Konaré, became president (reelected in 1997).In the 2002 presidential elections Amadou Toumani Touré won, and was reelected in 2007. On March 22, 2012, a military coup took place in Mali. Representatives of the command of the rebel units said they removed President Amadou Toumani Touré from power. The military was dissatisfied with the reaction of the authorities to an armed uprising of Tuareg tribes in northern Mali. Captain Amadou Sanogo took over as head of state.In April, Sanogo handed over power to the new acting head of state, Speaker of Parliament Dioncounda Traoré, and Modibo Diarra became acting prime minister. In early April 2012, Tuaregs declared independence for the Azawal region in the north. At the same time, various Islamist groups such as Unity and Jihad and the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa increased their influence in Azawad. Soon the military confrontation between Tuaregs and Islamists began in Azawad.

Mali – Republic of Mali State in West Africa

Industrial development is hampered by poor transportation infrastructure. The economy is highly diversified: along with subsistence and semi-subsistence farming, there is small-scale production, private capital, predominantly foreign (French), and a state-capitalist sector. Natural and climatic conditions also played an important role in the development of the country, determining the specialization of Mali. Nevertheless, by analyzing the main indicators, it is possible to identify a trend towards an improvement in the political and economic development of Mali in the future.

Mali – Republic of Mali State in West Africa

Mali, a country covering 1,240,192 km², is the second largest state in West Africa. Until 1958 it was a French colony (French Sudan). The state language is French. The administrative-territorial division consists of seven regions and a special administrative unit (district) Bamako. The capital is Bamako. In the XII-XV centuries Mali was a powerful empire that covered huge territories. Its power was determined by its position at the crossroads of African trade routes and began to fade after the discovery of sea routes around the continent and the relocation of trade centers on the coast. Its remoteness from the sea still hampers the country’s development.

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Highlights

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Mali is a country of deserts and savannas with leveled terrain: average elevations range from 200 to 300 meters below sea level. The north is occupied by the stony deserts of the Western and Central Sahara, bordered in the east by the Iforas Plateau (up to 853 m high), in the south by the Mandingo Mountains (up to 1,155 m high). The country has a tropical continental climate, hot and dry. High temperatures range from 20-24 to 35 ° C all year round. From November to June, the hot and dry northeasterly winds prevail, while from July to October, there are humid winds from the Atlantic. Rainfall during the rainy season in the south reaches 1500 mm, and in the north there are years without rainfall at all. Three seasons are distinguished: dry cool (December-February), dry hot and rainy.

The main rivers are the Senegal River, which headwaters irrigate the south-west of the country, and the Niger, which begins in neighboring Guinea and crosses Mali from west to east for 1600 km. Upper Niger flows in a narrow rocky valley, replete with rapids and rapids, while in its middle course flows through undulating plains, widening to 1-2 km and forming numerous arms, lakes and islands.

The north of the country has no rivers and is occupied by stony, pebbly and sandy deserts. Only in the rainy season the land is for some weeks covered by the carpet of fast growing plants-ephemera, abundantly blooming and pleasing to the eye with the variety of colors. The animal life is represented mainly by reptiles, and of the large mammals, the Addax antelope and the gazelles Dorcas and Dama can be seen here. Monkeys are found on the Iforas Plateau, while in the Sahel zone (south of the Sahara) ostriches, giraffes, oryx antelope appear, among the predators – cheetahs, striped hyenas, genettes. Vegetation in the Sahel is also more diverse and is represented by desert savannah with isolated groups of palms, acacias and baobabs. The desert north is almost unpopulated: in the wet season, only nomadic pastoralists Tuaregs and Arabs with herds of camels appear here, although in the Sahel the Tuaregs and the Fulbes also breed sheep and goats.

To the south of the Sahel stretches the vast Sudanese savanna with tall grasses and groves of bushes and trees with luxuriant crowns, especially characteristic of this area oil-bearing caritas and seiba. There are numerous antelopes, elephants, lions, leopards, and hippos and crocodiles in Niger. The world of birds is diverse and rich. At the same time, in the valley of the Niger, life is poisoned by numerous mosquitoes, some of them carry pathogens of dangerous diseases. The Sudanese savannah is an agricultural region: rice, cotton and peanuts are grown here, and livestock farming is also developed.

A girl in Timbuktu

Mali has more than 15.3 million people and the population is growing rapidly. The main populations of the south are Bambara, Senufo, Dogon and others. 70% of the population are Muslim, about 25% follow traditional beliefs, and the remaining 5% are Christian. In the south are all the major cities: the capital Bamako, industrial centers of Caes (considered the hottest city on earth), Mopti. The most ancient cities are Gao (founded in VII century) and Djenne (known since 800). “The city of Tombouctou, founded in the 11th century, is called the Pearl of the Sahara. The population of these small towns is engaged mainly in pottery and other traditional crafts.

Cities of Mali

Attractions in Mali

History

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The first written reference to this territory is in Arab literature, dated the 4th century B.C. In the 8th century, Arabs entered here through the Sahara by caravan routes. Since the 4th century A.D. on the territory of modern Mali there have been successive states – Ghana (4-12 centuries), Mali (13-15 centuries) and Songai (15-16 centuries). Ghana (in the Muslim world it was called “the land of gold”) and Mali in the Middle Ages were major suppliers of gold, which was exported on camels to North Africa through the Sahara Desert. As a result of the invasion of Muslim Berbers in the 17th century, the state of Ghana collapsed and many of its inhabitants converted to Islam. In the 15th century a small settlement of Bambara and Malinke (now the capital of Bamako, its name means “Cayman River”) was established in the south in the valley of the Niger River. The craftsmanship and cultural development in the cities of Gao, Djenne, and Tombouctou of Songai State were known far beyond its borders. In 1591 the state was conquered by the army of the Moroccan Sultanate. Ancient cities were looted, most of the scientists were taken to Morocco, and the conquerors were partially assimilated into the local population. In the 17th-19th centuries there were state formations of Bambara (Segou, Kaarta), Fulbe (Masina), etc. in the territory of Songai.

Market near Jenne Mosque

The first Europeans who penetrated into the territory of modern Mali were Major Houghton from Ireland (1790), the Scots surgeon Mungo Park (1796) and explorer A.G. Leng (1826, the first European who visited the city of Tombouctou), and the Frenchman R. Kaye (1827). French military expansion began in 1855. The local population opposed the French colonizers (the Tuaregs offered armed resistance to the authorities until 1914). In the 1890s French troops subjugated almost all the territory of modern Mali. The colony’s borders and name repeatedly changed – Upper Senegal with the center in Caes (1890), Sudan (1892), Senegambia-Niger (1902), Upper Senegal-Niger (1904), French Sudan (1920). In 1895, the colony was incorporated into a federation of colonies under the name French West Africa (FWA). Bamako became the administrative center of French Sudan in 1908.

The colony introduced a system of direct rule. Economic development of the land was based on commodity production of rice and cotton. Forced labor of local population was widely used, including construction of irrigation canals and railroad. French Sudan became a source of labor, food, and agricultural raw materials for the metropolis and neighboring colonies of Guinea, Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire), and Senegal.

Washing and Dishwashing Day

In the 1920s, the first trade unions and student unions were established in the cities. In 1945, the colony received the status of an overseas territory of France, which gave the local population the right to form social and political organizations and representation in elected bodies of the former metropolis. The first political parties were the Sudan Union or SS – ADO (territorial section of the African Democratic Rally, a major political movement in the SFA), the Progressive Party of Sudan, the Sudan Democratic Party (SDP), the Sudan Bloc (SB), and others. The anti-colonial movement was led by the Sudan Union Party, led by Modibo Keita (a descendant of the rulers of the Mali Empire). After its victory in the elections to the territorial assembly (1957) an autonomous government was formed. On September 28, 1958 French Sudan became an autonomous Sudanese Republic within the French Community.

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Period of Independent Development. The independence of the Republic of Mali (the name is taken in memory of the historical past) was proclaimed at an extraordinary congress of the SS – ADO on September 22, 1960. Party leader Modibo Keita became President of the independent state, and Bamako was declared capital. The new leadership established a one-party regime, severed relations with France and pursued a policy of cooperation with the countries of the socialist camp. Betting on the expansion of public sector production did not lead to economic consolidation, the country experienced an acute shortage of funds for international payments. In 1967, the government was forced to restore trade relations with France and return the country to the franc zone. France provided Mali with substantial economic aid.

In November 1968 a military coup by a group of officers under the leadership of Lieutenant Moussa Traoré resulted in the transfer of power to the Comité Militaire de Libération Nationale (CMNL). In September 1969 M. Traore became president of Mali. Serious damage to the economy of the country was caused by severe droughts in 1970-1974, 1978 and early 1980s. Production was stagnant, foreign debts skyrocketed, and prices rose.

In 1976 on the initiative of the APC a new political party, the “Democratic Union of the Malian People” (UDMN), was established, headed by M. Traore. After the adoption of the new Constitution in 1979 the power shifted from the UDPS to the civil Government, M. Traore was elected President. In 1986 the military conflict between Mali and neighboring Burkina Faso over the gold-bearing area (the so-called Agascher band) lasted for 6 days. The disputed territory which had long been a claim of both countries was divided with the mediation of the UN.

The market in the capital.

Privatization program started in 1988 (48 state enterprises were privatized by the end of 1995). Deterioration of economic situation led to massive anti-government demonstrations of the population. In 1991 M. Traoré’s regime was overthrown in a military coup led by Lieutenant Colonel Amadou Toumani Touré, chief of army staff. In 1992 a new constitution was adopted, which proclaimed a multiparty system. The former leader of the Pan-African Party for Freedom, Solidarity and Justice (ADEMA, founded in 1990), Alpha Oumar Konaré, was elected president. He was re-elected to the post in 1997. In the parliamentary elections, ADEMA won 128 out of 147 seats.

The country continued to implement a policy of economic liberalization. Mali successfully implemented its second economic restructuring program in 1992-1995, and the IMF provided it with 12 billion CFA francs to implement the third one, scheduled for 1996-1999. Mali’s economy benefited from the CFA franc devaluation (1994): the average economic growth rate in 1995-1997 exceeded 4%. As a result of the fall of world cotton prices (by 46% in 1999), cotton acreage (one of the major sources of foreign exchange earnings in Mali) was reduced by one third and 50% of cotton-ginning factories were closed. This led to a sharp deterioration of the economic situation in the country since 2000. In 2001, there were 14.6% of the unemployed in urban areas and 5.3% in rural areas. In 2002, the inflation rate was 4.5%.

Among West African states, Mali stands out in terms of legal provision for opposition parties. The government of Mali largely respects the rights and freedoms of numerous political organizations, enshrined in a special law – the “Charter of Political Parties”. This was evidenced by the holding of the 2002 general elections in a calm atmosphere and the democratic transition of power to the new president. The presidential elections were held in two rounds in April-May 2002. President A.W. Konare, respecting the constitution, did not run for a third term. In the first round (April 28) the struggle for the presidency developed between 24 candidates. Independent candidate Amadou Toumani Touré received the most votes (28.71%). The ADEMA candidate, Soumaila Cissé, obtained 21.31% of the vote, and Ibrahim Boubacar Keita (Rassemblement pour Mali, RMM, created in 2001) 21.03%. In the second round which took place on May 12, 2002 A.T. Touré won with 65.01% of votes (S. Cissé got 34.99%). In the parliamentary elections of July 14 and 28, 2002 ADEMA won 53 seats, the coalition of parties headed by Prime Minister I.B. Keita – 46 seats, “National Congress of the Democratic Initiative” (CNDI) – 13, and independent candidates – 6 seats.

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Mali’s main financial donors are France, the IMF and the European Union states. The country also receives financial assistance from the IBRD (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, one of the five institutions of the World Bank (WB)), the Islamic Development Bank, and Japan. The IMF provides assistance under the HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) program, which is given to the poorest countries with high external debt. GDP growth in 2004 was 0.5%. The GDP is $10.53 billion. GDP IS $ 10.53 BILLION.

The Economy

Mali is an agrarian country. One of the least developed nations in the world. In 2003 gross domestic product was $4.79 billion, average annual growth is 5.4% . The annual inflation rate is 1.3% (2003). 64% of Malians are below the poverty line (per capita income in 2002 was $230) . The annual earnings of a skilled worker is $1,560 . The unemployment rate among the urban population is 14.6%, among the rural population 5.3% (2002).

The economically active population is 5.69 million, of whom 4.58 million work in the agricultural sector (2001).

Farming, cattle breeding, gathering wild fruits and fishing account for about 1/2 of the total value of the gross domestic product. About 80% of Malians specialize in fishing and 20% work in industry . Agriculture accounts for 36% of GDP . About 4% of the land is cultivated.

Yields fluctuate due to damaging frequent droughts as well as locust invasions. The main export crops are peanuts (Mali is one of the main producers and exporters in Africa) and cotton. Oranges, bananas, guavas, mango, cassava, kenaf (industrial crop), corn, vegetables, papaya, millet, wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, tobacco, fonio (cereals), cotton, tea, and yams are also grown. Livestock (breeding camels, cattle, goats, horses, sheep, donkeys, pigs) and poultry are well developed. Mali is one of the largest cattle-breeding countries in West Africa (85% of livestock is exported). During droughts up to 80% of livestock die. Mali also has well-developed forestry – the production of industrial wood and fishing – catching Nile perch, tilapia, etc. About 100,000 tons of fish are caught annually.

Waiting for the ferry

Industry’s share of GDP – 17% (2001) . Mining industry – extraction of granite, gold, limestone, marble, table salt and phosphorites. Since the 1990s, gold mining has developed particularly intensively. By 2000 the country is the third largest gold producer on the African continent (after South Africa and Ghana). The largest gold mines are located in the Kaes region. In the region of Kenya (south-west of the country) commercial diamond deposits are searched for. Among the branches of the manufacturing industry the leading positions are occupied by food-processing and the productions connected with it on processing of agricultural production (slaughterhouses, factories on rice and cotton cleaning, manufacture of sugar, peanut and cotton oils, canning of vegetables and fruits).

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Road to the Bandiagara Plateau.

Operating woodworking, leather and footwear, tobacco, textile, match and pharmaceutical factories. The industry of building materials is developing, factories for the production of agricultural implements are built. Artisanal production of pottery, wicker, textiles, shoes, goldware, reptile leather and precious woods is well developed. In terms of foreign trade, exports and imports are almost the same: in 2002, exports amounted to $915 million, imports – $927 million.

The main export commodities are livestock, gold and cotton. Main export partners are Thailand (14%), China (12.1%), India (7.9%), Italy (7.5%), Bangladesh (6.1%) – 2003 Main imports are machinery and equipment, oil, food, construction materials, and textiles. The main import partners are France (15.4%), Senegal (7.7%) and Cote d’Ivoire (7.1%) – 2003. Wood and charcoal dominate the energy mix. 80% of electricity is generated by hydropower plants (Sotouba on the Niger River, Felou on the Senegal River, and Selingue on the Sankarani River).

Restoration of the Jenne Mosque

The transport network is poorly developed. Most of the railroads and roads require major repairs. The main mode of transport is automobile. The first railroad was built in 1880-1924. The railway network in Mali (total length in 2003 was 729 km) is linked with the railroads of Senegal. The length of roads is 15.1 km (2.76 km with hard surface – 2001). The length of waterways is 1.82 thousand km (2004). The main waterway is the Niger River. Fishing ports are located in the cities of Mopti and Dire. Air transport is of particular importance. In 2004, there were 27 airports and airstrips (9 of them were paved). Senu International Airport is located in Bamako (opened in 1976, its reconstruction and modernization began in the late 1990s).

The currency unit is the CFA franc (XOF), consisting of 100 centimes, which is strictly tied to the euro. The CFA franc has been used as the national currency since 1984 (in 1962-1984 it was the Malian franc). At the beginning of 2004 the national currency exchange rate was 1 USD = 581.2 XOF.

Mali has also developed tourism. Foreign tourists are attracted by the beauty of natural landscapes, legendary cities and ancient centers of science and gold trade – Gao, Djenne (one of the most ancient cities in West Africa) and Timbuktu, good conditions for sport fishing as well as the originality of the culture of the local people. Since the late. Since the 1990’s, the country annually visited by about 100 thousand foreign tourists, and revenue from the tourism business is an average of 90 million U.S. dollars a year. U.S. dollars a year. The most favorable period for visiting the country is the dry cool season (November-February). In 2000, the country was visited by 91 thousand foreign tourists, income from tourism was 50 million U.S. dollars. U.S. DOLLARS.

Traffic in Bamako

In 2002, Mali had budget revenues of $764 million and expenditures of $828 million. In 2001, financial aid of $596.4 million was received. Mali’s low level of economic development is largely due to the country’s colonial past and dependence on France. Mali’s potential wealth lies in mining and the production of agricultural commodities, livestock, and fish.

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