The Moscow Metro is a transportation company associated with increased danger. Rules for use of the Moscow Metro, Regulation 1.2.
Basic information and statistics
Moscow Metro was opened on May 15, 1935. Nowadays transportation system consists of 250 stations (3 are closed for reconstruction) which are the part of 13 lines with the length of 435.7 km. The system also integrates the Monorail, the Moscow Central Ring and the Moscow Central diameters. Most of the tracks and stations are underground, but there are sections located both on the surface and above it. The main idea of the Moscow Central Ring Road is to use the Moscow metro system as a base for interchange between Moscow and St. Petersburg. The length of platforms of most stations is 155 m (8 cars), the length of platforms at the new stations is 162 m. The width of subway track is similar to the one used in Russian railways – 1524 mm. Internal diameter of the circular single-track tunnel is 5,1 m (5,5 m on the first lines), internal dimensions of the rectangular tunnel – 4,16×4,4 m. The tracks over the rivers pass through the subway bridges. There are 5 open and 6 closed metro bridges. The metro is served by 20 electric depots. Average speed of trains is 46-72 km/h. The passenger flow of the Moscow Metro is more than 2.5 billion passengers per year (2018 data), the 6th busiest in the world.
Structure of the Moscow Metro
The Moscow Metro is a complex transportation system in terms of its structure. Different organizations are involved in the design, construction and operation of the subway.
The Moscow Metro is operated by the State Unitary Enterprise “Moscow Underground” founded in 1935. There are 24 thousand employees at the enterprise serving more than 8 million passengers a day.
The organization consists of dozens of departments, services and divisions:
- Traffic Service – organizes passenger transportation, station operations and coordinates the work of operating services.
- Track service – provides routine maintenance, overhaul of track and track facilities, track maintenance diagnostics and equipment gauge inspection on metro lines.
- Electrical-mechanical service ensures operation of metro life support systems: tunnel and local ventilation, water supply, drainage, heating, hot water supply and sewage, as well as additional devices.
- Escalator service provides operation and repair of escalators, operation of elevators in metro facilities.
- Tunnel facility service performs operation and repair of tunnel constructions, stations and surface facilities.
- Rolling Stock Service is responsible for the renewal, modernization and repair of the car fleet. It is in charge of all electric depots.
- Power supply service provides electric power for the trains traffic and operation of all the devices of metro.
- Training and production center trains specialists for separate divisions of the company.
- Informational and computing center automates metro control functions in order to increase efficiency and safety of passenger traffic.
- as well as many other services, whose work is sometimes invisible to passengers.
Construction and design organizations
- Moscow Metrostroy (Mosmetrostroy) founded in 1931 has been the main construction organization of the Moscow metro for more than 80 years. During this time 190 stations were built and 600 km of lines were laid.
- Metrogiprotrans JSC founded in 1933 is the main design organization.
- CJSC INGEOCOM was founded in 1989 and constructed the station Slavyansky Bulvar, the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line and the section of Filevskaya line from Kievskaya station to Mezhdunarodnaya station as well as a subcontractor of Borisovo-Lublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line.
- JSC “Transinzhstroy” founded in 1955 is a general contractor of construction of stations Borisovo, Shipilovskaya and Zyablikovo of Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line and stations of Novokosino-Kalininskaya line of Moscow subway. The organization is believed to be the main creator of the so-called Metro-2.
- Mosinzhproekt JSC, founded in 1958, – since 2013 it has been acting as a general contractor for the construction of new stations of the Moscow Metro.
Carriage-building and car-repair organizations
- Metrowagonmash” OJSC (before 1992 – “Mytishchi machine-building plant”), founded in 1897.
- CJSC VAGONMASH (I.E. Egorov Leningrad Carriage Works) was founded in 1874.
Construction of Moscow Metro can be divided into several periods.
Planning and beginning of construction
The first realized project of Moscow Metro construction could be considered the project of 1930, developed by the Moscow City Railway Department (MGZhD). In 1931 the architectural bureau of Metrostroy submitted the same project with minor corrections, and in 1933 a technical project stipulating the construction of deep-laid sections was approved.
In fact, construction of the first line began in the end of 1933 and on May 15, 1935 the Moscow Metro was opened for passengers. The first line included 13 stations and went in two directions – from Sokolniki to Okhotny Ryad, and further to Park Kultury or Smolenskaya.
The project of the second line included the extension of the line from Smolenskaya to Kievskaya (opened in 1937), construction of the section from Aleksandrovsky Sad to Kurskaya (opened in 1938) and union of both radii in a separate line. Also in 1938 another line from Teatralnaya to Sokol was opened.
Military and post-war period
The construction of the third line was started in 1940, but due to the threat of Moscow capture the works were suspended until 1942. The section from Teatralnaya to Avtozavodskaya was put into operation in 1943, and the section from Kurskaya to Partizanskaya at the beginning of 1944.
After the war, construction of the fourth stage of the subway began. The section of Koltsevaya line from Park Kulturi to Kurskaya was launched in 1950, and from Kurskaya to Belorusskaya in 1952. Construction of the line was fully completed in 1954. In 1953 a new deep section of Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line from Ploshchad Revolutsii to Kievskaya began to function, while the old line was closed.
The period of typical projects
Since the mid-50s the main focus has been on making construction cheaper by using standard designs and reducing the cost of station design. From 1957 to 1963 the Sokolnicheskaya line was extended south-westward to the station with the same name, and in 1966 north-eastward to Preobrazhenskaya Square (in 1990 – to Bulvar Rokossovskogo). In 1958 a section between Kievskaya and Kutuzovskaya of Filevskaya line was built. From 1959 to 1965 the line was extended to Molodezhnaya, and in 1989 to Krylatskogo.
The Riga (1958), Kaluzhsky (1962), Tagansky (1966), and Krasnopresnensky (1971) radii were also built during this period, and were connected into diametrical lines in 1971 and 1975, respectively. Similarly, Kalininskaya (1979-1986) and Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya (1983-1994) lines were built. Zamoskvoretskaya, Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya and Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya lines were also extended before the collapse of the USSR.
Nineties and zeros
In 1990 some stations were renamed. In 1994, the northern radius of Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line was finished, from 2000 to 2002 three new stations in the southern radius were introduced. In 1995, Lublinskaya line from Chkalovskaya to Volzhskaya was opened. In 1996 the line was extended to Maryino, in 2007 the stations Sretensky Bulvar and Trubnaya were opened in the north.
In 1995 branches from Zamoskvoretskaya line were formed into a separate Kakhovskaya line. In 2003 the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line station Park Pobedy was opened, in 2008 the line was extended to Strogino having included a part of the Filovskaya line and in 2009 to Mitino. In 2003 Butovskaya light metro line was opened. In 2005 and 2006 Vystavochnaya and Mezhdunarodnaya stations were opened as branches from the Filevskaya line.
In January 2008 Monorail was included in the transport system.
From 2010 to 2011, the Lublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line was extended in both directions, including two new sections. In 2016, the northern radius is extended to Petrovsko-Razumovskaya station, and in 2018 to Seligerskaya station.
In 2013, the Vykhino – Zhulebino section of the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya line was launched, with the intermediate station Lermontovsky Prospekt; in 2014, Spartak station was completed and opened after a 40-year preservation period; in 2015, the new terminal station Kotelniki was opened.
In 2014, the first section of the Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya radius of the Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya line was opened with a one-way shuttle service between Delovoy Tsentr and Park Pobedy stations. In 2017, the radius was extended to Ramenki station, and traffic became regular, and in 2018 another section was built, including 7 stations.
In 2014, the Butovskaya line was extended to Bittsevsky Park station.
From 2014 to 2016, three new stations on the Sokolnicheskaya line were opened consecutively: Troparyovo, Rumyantsevo, and Salaryevo. The Salaryevo – Kommunarka section was opened in 2019.
At the end of 2015 and 2018, Technopark and Belomorskaya stations opened on the operating sections of the Zamoskvoretskaya line; at the end of 2017, a new end station, Khovrino, was opened on the northern radius.
In 2016, passenger traffic on the Moscow Central Circle (MCC) was launched. The first phase included 26 stations. Subsequently, four more stations were opened.
In 2018, the first section of the Delovoy Tsentr – Petrovsky Park Grand Ring Line was opened. Subsequently, another station was opened. In 2020, the second section Lefortovo – Nizhegorodskaya was opened, which was subsequently also extended by 1 station. In 2021, the Khoroshevskaya – Mnevniki section with forked traffic was launched, and by the end of the year it was extended by another 10 stations, to Kakhovskaya station.
In 2019, the first section of the Nekrasovskaya line Kosino – Nekrasovka was opened. In 2020, the second section was opened – Nizhegorodskaya – Kosino. Three stations of the Great Circle Line were also temporarily used in traffic.
Interesting about the subway
The opening of the subway in Moscow marked the beginning of a new era in the development of the city. The subway became a monument of the era and ranked among the main attractions of the capital. In the early years, people went down to the subway to admire the architecture and the richness of decoration of the stations. The cost of construction and design of the subway facilities at that time accounted for a large part of the country’s budget. Nowadays the transport component plays an increasing role for passengers. The Moscow Metro carries out more than 50% of all urban transportation. It is easy to imagine what will happen if the subway closes for at least one day.
In addition to the most popular transport system in Moscow, the subway is also an object of civil defense. Since 1941, all stations began to adapt for mass shelter of citizens in case of enemy use of mass destruction weapons. The ventilation shafts were equipped with filters, sanitary facilities were built, seal boxes were installed at the entrances to the stations to prevent explosions, and flooding was prevented in the tunnels. Diesel power stations were installed in service buildings to independently maintain lighting and ventilation. The temperature in the subway was maintained naturally.
During the war the subway served as a bomb shelter, here thousands of Muscovites hid from the air raids. Traffic was stopped at 18 hours, people were placed on stations and on the tracks, which were covered with wooden planking. At Belorusskaya and Chistye Prudy stations there were command posts of the General Staff and air defense. After the war the stations were designed with defense significance in mind. In addition to ground stations and stations of the Filovskaya line there are no gates only on a few stations: Aeroport, Sokol, Partizanskaya, Pervomaiskaya, Shchelkovskaya, Kropotkinskaya, Krasnoselskaya, Sokolniki and Pechatniki. In fact, the Moscow Metro is the largest bomb shelter in the world.
However, contrary to popular belief, the subway is not an autonomous system. In the absence of power supply, in addition to stopping traffic, technical equipment will stop functioning. In just a few days, the level of groundwater in the underground structures will exceed the critical mark.
Moscow Metro is provided with energy by the electric power plants of JSC “Mosenergo”. More than 300 substations provide power supply, converting 10 kV AC to 825 V DC for the contact line power, and 400 V, 230 V and 127 V AC to power escalators, traffic control devices, signaling, communication, lighting and other networks.
Type Subway Populated areas Moscow Kotelniki Krasnogorsk Lyubertsy Reutov Operator SUE “Moskovsky metropoliten” Head Victor Kozlovsky Opening date May 15, 1935 Line operational length 427.367 km Number of lines 15 Number of stations 249 Number of depots 20 Daily ridership 9.272 million persons/day Annual ridership 2 500.4 million persons Share in citywide ridership 48% Website(s) http://mosmetro.ru http://gup.mosmetro.ru http://mosmetro.livejournal.com Awards
The Moscow Metro is a system of subway lines in Moscow.
The first subway in Russia and the USSR according to the date of its opening. The fifth by annual passenger traffic subway in the world and the first in Europe.
One of the most beautiful subways in the world. Many stations are richly decorated in the style of socialist realism, made of valuable stones and materials. 44 stations are cultural heritage sites.
|#||The line||Terminal stations (track I)||Number of stations||Operating length, km|
|Sokolnicheskaya line||“Rokossovsky Boulevard” → “Kommunarka”.||26||41,538|
|Zamoskvoretskaya line||“Alma-Atinskaya” → “Khovrino” 42.947||24||42,947|
|Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya line||“Shchelkovskaya → Pyatnitskoe shosse||22||45,083|
|Filievskaya line||“Alexandrovsky Sad” → “Kuntsevskaya”, “Mezhdunarodnaya”||13||14,882|
|Circle line||Clockwise (internal track)||12||19,260|
|Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya line||“Novoyasenevskaya → Medvedkovo||24||37,904|
|Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya line||“Planernaya” → “Kotelniki”||23||42,293|
|Kalininskaya line||“Novokosino” → “Tretyakovskaya”||8||16,265|
|Solntsevskaya line||“Delovoy centr” → “Rasskazovka”||12||23,19|
|Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya line||“Dmitry Donskoy Boulevard” → “Altufievo”||25||41,470|
|Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya line||“Seligerskaya” → “Zyablikovo” line||23||37,724|
|Great Ring Line||“Savelovskaya” → “Kakhovskaya”, “Delovoy centr”||18||33,67|
|Butovskaya line||“Buninskaya alley” → “Bittsevsky park||7||9,977|
|Nekrasovskaya line||“Nekrasovka” → “Electrozavodskaya”||11||20,34|
In documentation abbreviated names of lines and working subdivisions are often used.