This is one of the biggest mysteries of archaeology, history, anthropology and many other related sciences. We will talk about the mysterious drawings of the Nazca Plateau . These drawings were discovered by accident, thanks to aviation, as they can only be seen from an airplane or from a large hill. The first to see the giant geometric shapes from an airplane in 1920, the American explorer Paul Kosok. The scientist was staring in amazement at this incredible kaleidoscope of trapezoids, triangles and spirals that dotted the plateau in a vast area. Besides, there were images of more than 100 known plants and animals, as well as a scattering of incomprehensible, unconnected straight lines.
These lines particularly struck the scientist. They cut the desert in all directions without any apparent order, were absolutely straight and ran beyond the horizon, completely ignoring the rough terrain – through the hills and valleys.
The 60 km long Nasca Sand Plain is located 400 km south of the Peruvian capital Lima, between the cities of Nasca and Palpa. In these places the land has not seen moisture for years. Drops of rare rain falling on the heated rocky surface immediately evaporate. This lifeless space is an ideal place for the arrangement of burials with the provision of incorruption. Later, studying all the drawings in situ, Paul Kosok saw that the technology of their execution was remarkably simple. All that was needed was to move the stones and turf beneath them, exposing the soft earth, and stack them in a row. This, of course, took many years. At the same time, images created with great care could be preserved in this waterless arid place for thousands of years!
The themes of the drawings, as already mentioned, can be divided into two categories: figures and lines. The latter are either paired, like streetcar tracks, or form geometric shapes. And since in many places the lines are drawn on top of the drawings, it is obvious that it was the drawings that were made first. The lines are very straight, and it is a mystery how the draughtsmen were able to adhere so precisely to the intention and achieve the effect of straight lines at such great distances.
Since the discovery of the mysterious drawings, scientists have been haunted by questions about their creators and purpose. The theories put forward are varied and fantastic – from space aliens to a system for controlling the Earth’s population. Each new enthusiast for solving the Nazca mystery adheres to one theory: astronomical, geometric, agricultural or irrigation, utilitarian-geographical (roads) and creative (art and religion). Other hypotheses are put forward, but so far none of them has a significant advantage. Even in determining the age of the desert drawings, researchers cannot reach a consensus: some believe that they were created around 200 BC, according to others – in 1700 BC.
Let us take a closer look at some of the theories concerning the Nazca drawings.
The first is astronomical, it came to the mind of the discoverer of the drawings Paul Kosoku. On June 21, 1939, the scientist took the first step toward solving the “mystery of Nazca. At sunset, he saw the sun set exactly at the intersection of one of the straight lines with the horizon. Observations in the following days convinced Kosok of the correctness of his guess: he found the line of the winter (in the southern hemisphere winter corresponds to our summer) solstice. In addition, Kosok noticed that the drawings and lines indicate the location of certain cosmic bodies (stars and constellations) in the sky on astronomically significant days (full moons, etc.).
But to support the hypothesis it was necessary to identify all the figures of the Nazca desert with celestial phenomena. This daunting task required great effort, time, and complete dedication. Paul Kosok was lucky. He found such an assistant in Maria Reiche, a humble interpreter from Spanish who accompanied him on his trips to South America. It was to her that the scientist entrusted the fate of his extraordinary discovery and never later repented of it. It took seven years to make the first approximate maps and topological plans of the plateau.
It was not until 1947 that Maria was able to use a helicopter with the assistance of the Peruvian Ministry of Aviation. For the first time she flew overboard: she was tied down with ropes and held her camera in her hands. Then an engineer I knew built her a special harness and it was relatively safe. She worked alone, so things were slow. Maria didn’t finish her first detailed diagram of the Nazca Desert images until 1956.
“For ancient peoples, the positions of the Sun and Moon served as a calendar,” Maria Reiche said. – They used it to determine the arrival of spring and autumn, the seasonal fluctuations of the water regime, and consequently the timing of sowing and harvesting. That is why we found so many lines. It is difficult to talk about the exact meaning of animal images. I only know that some of them represent entire constellations. Most of all, I want to penetrate into the way of thinking of the ancients, who left us such unusual writings. And it is also extremely important to understand how people who could not fly over the pampa, (the local name of the desert), could design and transfer to its surface many times enlarged picture of the starry sky. “
The astronomical calendar hypothesis for decades was shared by most scientists around the world, until it was checked by the famous American astronomer Gerald Hawkins, author of the monograph “Solving the mystery of Stonehenge. With the help of a computer Hawkins brilliantly proved that the famous Stonehenge – a mysterious structure on Salisbury Plain – is nothing more than an astronomical observatory. Applying the same methodology, corrected for the latitude of the Nazca Plateau, Hawkins was convinced that only a fraction of 20% of the lines on the Nazca Plateau pointed to the Sun or the Moon. As for the stars, the accuracy of the directions is no more than a random distribution of numbers at all. “The computer has shattered the theory of the star-solar calendar,” J. Hawkins had to admit. – It was with bitterness that we abandoned the theory of the astronomical calendar. However, Hawkins’s research also had a positive result, as he was the first to note a strange feature of the Nazca drawings: they were all made with a single line without a gap, which did not intersect anywhere.
The next version of the mysterious Nazca drawings is alien, it is now the most common. And it was first put forward by Erich von Deniken (he was also engaged in the study of the English Stonehenge). He is convinced that these drawings served as runways for interplanetary alien ships. His confidence in the cosmic purpose of the signs is based on the fact that the drawings have regular shapes and lines perfectly straight and can only be detected from the air.
Why are these drawings in places where no one can see them from the ground? Or were they meant directly to gods unknown to us?
Those who have seen the worldwide documentary “Memories of the Future” remember the landing of a sports plane on one of these strips. But since they are only visible from the plane, a natural question arises: “Could the ancient inhabitants of the Cordilleras – the Incas – know how to fly?” Here it is appropriate to remember the ancient Inca legend, which speaks of the “golden ship” “It was commanded by a woman named Orjana. She was destined to become the foremother of the earthly race. Orjana gave birth to seventy earthly children and then returned to the stars”.
This legend reports the ability of the “sons of the sun,” the Incas, “to fly over the earth in golden ships.” Perhaps there is a connection between these legends and the reports of the English anthropological journal “Maine”, which states in particular: “Analysis of the muscle tissues of the preserved Inca mummies showed that their blood composition was very different from that of the local population. They were found to have a blood group of the rarest combination . Nowadays only two or three people in the whole world are known to have such blood composition”.
Further developing the discovery of J. Hawkins, who was the first to discover the continuity of the lines in the drawings, the scientists noticed the strange extra lines. Being completely alien to the main image, they were, however, connected to the beginning and end of the outline (groove), as if connecting the drawing to some kind of mega-system of Nazca. The conclusion is that the drawings resemble electrical circuits made by a single conductor, which can neither be crossed (short circuit), nor interrupted (break in the circuit).
Paying attention to the connection lines, the scientists clearly saw parallel and serial connection of the drawings and suggested that the lines-channels of the Nazca plateau were apparently filled in ancient times with some kind of luminophore. This substance was capable of glowing under the influence of an electric current, similar to the inscriptions and drawings of today’s gaslight advertising. Thus, in confirmation of the alien theory, the “runways” did their job, and the luminous drawings, visible from the air tens of kilometers away, did theirs.”
Another version that has an alien basis. The key to solving the mystery of the Nazca Desert may be a huge drawing drawn on a 400-meter mountainside of the Paracas Peninsula (Peru). The drawing is known as the “Candelabra of Paracas,” or the Andean Candelabra. Its “branches point in the direction of the Nazca Desert. Like the Nazca Desert figures, the lines of this image are notches reaching the bedrock – red porphyry. The “Candelabra” dates back at least two thousand years, and the history of its origin is a mystery behind the seven sealed secrets. According to the bold hypothesis of some Russian researchers, “Paracas candelabrum” is nothing more than a “passport of the Earth”. This figure contains all the information about our planet. The left side of the drawing represents fauna and the right side represents flora. And the whole picture is a human face. Near the top of the mountain, there is a mark, which resembles a nail. This is a scale showing the “level of modern civilization development” (there are six altogether). If the “candelabra” is mentally turned by 180°, then we get a crucifix. It is a kind of symbol – a warning that our planet can perish from unreasonable human activity.
Further the authors of this idea try to explain that this information was delivered to us by some super civilization from the constellation of Leo. Referring to the large number of sculptural images of a lion on Earth and in all Earth religions in particular, the authors prove that the modern Earth civilization is the work of aliens from the constellation of the Lion.
We can add to the cosmic hypotheses a cheerful idea that perhaps the star tourists simply left a trace of their visit to Earth in this way, like “Vasya was here”. It should be noted that such interpretations of Nazca drawings are born in all corners of our planet every day, if not every minute. But even the craziest of them should not be rejected without examining them in detail.
I would like to tell you about another version, which appeared relatively recently – it is an artificial system of underground water channels, located in the depths of the mountain plateau. In the city of Nasca with a population of 10 thousand people runs a river of the same name. In its composition and “fragrance” it is not inferior to sewage canals of large cities, but at the same time residents of Naska do not lack in fresh and clean water. They take it from a system of wells, which are located exactly along the lines of the mysterious drawings. And what is particularly striking is that two of these underground canals pass directly under the bed of the Nazca River. And the overall system of irrigation canals Nasca simply can not but cause admiration – so it is perfect and productive. It should be noted that the source of prosperity of the people who inhabited Nasca was agriculture, so this version has a real basis. But who, when and how could build such canals?
It is interesting that the drawings were discovered from an airplane that was flying over the plateau in search of water sources. It was only some time later that the water wells were also found. Thus, the pilot has coped with his task brilliantly, although he offered historians one of the most difficult puzzles of the twentieth century – the Nazca drawings.
And now another opportunity to look at the drawings from above.
The Nazca Plateau, or Pampa Nazca as it is called in Peru, is a deserted plateau, riddled by numerous beds of long-drained rivers. It is located 450 km south of the Peruvian capital Lima. The total area covered by the drawings stretches more than 50 km from north to south and 5-7 km from west to east. The enigmatic lines cover the surface of the desert with an area of about 500 square kilometers. Such images made on the surface of the earth, scientists call geoglyphs. The main mystery of Naska are the lines and stripes themselves, of which there are about 13 000! In addition to this, the plateau also knows about 700 geometric shapes, especially triangles and trapezoids and about 100 spirals.
But the well-known drawings of animals, birds, fish and insects are very few here – just over thirty. All of the images at Nazca are made, as would seem at first glance, in a fairly simple way – they are excavated in the surface of the desert plateau. In other words, the drawings, lines and stripes are simply grooves in the sandy-pebble soil. Their depth varies from 10 to 30 cm. But the width of individual strips may reach 100 m, and in an exceptional case, even 200 m. And the length of some lines reaches 8-10 km!
Today there are more than thirty hypotheses trying to explain the origin of these geoglyphs, but none of them can give a clear answer to two main questions: how and for what purpose this giant “drawing board” was drawn.
Modern geodetic methods do not allow to draw a straight line up to 8 km long on a rugged terrain so that the deviation did not exceed 0.1%. But the ancient creators of the Nazca drawings, whoever they were, did. Moreover, straight lines stretching for kilometers simply ignore the folds of the terrain. They descend into ravines, ascend to hilltops, and their geometric regularity and parallelism of lateral boundaries are not violated at all .
Moreover, the Nazca Plateau is not the only area in Peru covered with mysterious images. Just a dozen kilometers from Nazca is the small town of Palpa, around which on the plateau called Palpa Pampa are thousands of similar stripes, lines and drawings.
The general public these geoglyphs on the Palpa Plateau have become known after the publications of Erich von Daniken only in the early 1990s. The Palpa plateau itself is twice as small as Naska in area, but the variety of geoglyphs in Palpa is much more. As in Naska, on the Palpa plateau the vast majority of images are stripes and lines. Stripes can bifurcate, change their direction at right angles, turn into triangles. In Palpa, a 200-meter-wide strip was discovered. According to some researchers, there are lines much longer than in Nazca. The size of the longest of them allegedly reaches 23 km! The logic of the ancient creators of this complex of images remains inaccessible to modern scientists.
With all the abundance of hypotheses about the origin and purpose of the Nazca and Palpa geoglyphs, today scientists are no closer to solving this mysterious phenomenon. It is difficult to assume that such huge volume of works, comparable on scales only with the construction of the Great Wall of China, was executed with any one utilitarian purpose.
Studying of a grandiose complex of images of Naska-Palpa is complicated also by that till now there are no the detailed maps displaying all picture of geoglyphs of this area. By means of aerial photos Americans made enough detailed maps-schemes of that part of Naska plateau where all well-known figures of animals are represented. But detailed plans of the entire Nazca complex, and even more so, the Palpa Plateau until today do not exist. Pilots of tourist planes say that almost every year they discover new, previously unknown geoglyphs on the plateau. But pilots are not researchers and are not engaged in fixing of newly found images. Scientists of small archeological missions from other countries which for the last years have activated their work are engaged in it. And then there are the most interesting results.
This distinguishes the Palpa drawings from the Nazca images, where the animal figures are usually arranged alone, framed by lines, bands or geometric shapes.
The Paracas Peninsula is also known for a huge geoglyph located on the sloping slope of a sand dune, looking out to the open ocean. This is the so-called “candelabra” or “trident”, a rather complex geometric figure of 120 m high. It can be seen from the ocean at a distance of more than 10 km. Therefore, researchers almost unanimously believe that it is a kind of a lighthouse-indicator for ancient seafarers.
Until recently, it was thought that this geoglyph was unique for the Paracas Peninsula. However the discoveries of this year disprove this opinion. Again, thanks to space photographing in sand dunes of peninsula new geoglyphs have been found. It was not wide strips and not geometrical figures well known in Naska. Newly found geoglyphs of Paracas are the complex combination from narrow not so long lines and set of the roundish holes located in certain sequence. Their purpose is not clear, scientists yet have not put forward any hypotheses about it.
Also here, near the Pisco Valley, on the Cajamarquilla plateau was found a strange “band”, about 20 meters wide and 1.5 kilometers long. This strip consists of almost 7000 rounded holes carved in the rock. The manmade nature of the pits is beyond doubt, but locals were not even aware of the strip until satellite photographs were taken of it.
The area continues to present mysteries for new generations of explorers. But the uniqueness of the Nazca-Palpa-Paracas drawings still does not find a clear explanation.
Interesting places on Google Maps in Peru and Chile: Nazca drawings, Palpa, Tacna, Chiza and Pintados
From a bird’s eye view, familiar buildings, city districts, rivers, islands and other objects often look different. This is the subject of the “Google Places of Interest” collection, elements of which we find by looking at the mapping service in satellite mode.
We’ve already had two Latin American countries, Ecuador and Belize. Today we’ll grab Peru and Chile.
In 1939, while flying over the Nazca Desert, American archaeologist Paul Kosock noticed the interesting lines that made up the giant drawings. Even more entertaining was the fact that these images are only visible from above, and from the surface of the earth are nothing more than ordinary indentations.
Paul’s discovery so interested geographers that immediately after the end of World War II, they set out to actively study the drawings, which became known as the Nazca drawings. Over the decades, images on the ground have become riddled with speculation and legend. For example, some scientists even hypothesized that the lines were landing signs for alien ships.
Most of the drawings in one picture
However, German archaeologist Maria Reiche, who has devoted her life to studying the Nazca drawings, has substantiated that they were made by humans. As proof, Reiche presented the small sketches of Nazca drawings she found. In addition, the scientists also found the remains of wooden wedges driven into the ground, which served as coordinate points in the creation of the rusunks.
One of the most improbable hypotheses put forth by scientists attributes an extraterrestrial origin to the Nazca drawings. I guess it’s from the impotence to solve the mystery
Aerial photo of one of the Nazca drawings
Comment to place Vasily : Scientists what only hepotheses were not invented about these figures, such as not visible to the Indians of Nazca, but only from space … Sometimes such a stupidity expressed by people who call themselves scientists. I do not understand, is it difficult to guess that the drawings were visible to the Indians themselves, but not from nearness, but from the mountains.
The Palpa Lines are located in Peru, 20 kilometers north of the Nazca drawings. Research has shown that the lines were made in the first millennium BC by the Paracas civilization, a precursor to the Incas.
Lines of Palpa occupy an area of about 145 square kilometers. From the ground they are not actually visible, as they are minor depressions, in some places lined with stones.
The Paracas civilization managed to create images that are measured in hundreds of meters
The Paracas tribes left little evidence of their culture because they had no written language. However, it is known that they were able to embalm the dead and had a precise calendar. Some scholars believe that the Palpa Lines are attempts to map the starry sky.
From the ground, the Palpa Lines are very poorly visible. The true meaning of the Palpa Lines is still unresolved.
Comments on Alina’s place : Scientists are very often mistaken. This must be the case. The Palpa lines are something more down-to-earth than a map of the starry sky.
Buttercup : For a scientist to put forward a delusional sci-fi theory is often the only chance to promote himself. Nowadays, for every normal scientist there are a couple of losers who like to put forward stupid unscientific theories.
Pilot Andrei : People are always looking for a hidden meaning. There doesn’t have to be one. Maybe people were just expressing themselves that way. After all, we know that Native Americans didn’t have a written language, so they could express themselves with these giant drawings.
The city of Tacna, located in southern Peru, is famous for the world’s longest drawing. The image stretches along the entire city for 10 kilometers and consists of dozens of logos and inscriptions.
Modern drawings have become a major attraction in Tacna
There are many other interesting places in Tacna. For example, the caves in which the remains of ancient man were found, or the Renaissance cathedral. But the modern drawings of Tacna eclipse the ancient sites first of all by their scale. And secondly, there are many Peruvian soccer club logos among them, which makes the drawings an iconic place for fans as well.
Under some of the drawings are remnants of earlier works of art.
A canvas 10 kilometers long can easily claim to be the longest in the world
Comments to place Igor : I wonder why Peruvians like to create such huge drawings? It seems that soccer fans have nothing else to do in between the games of their favorite teams I wish there was a picture how these drawings look like in Tacna from a close distance.
Abbot : I guess the Tacna drawings are a form of self-expression by the local population. Even if the soccer team didn’t do much, the Tuckn drawings will help it stay in history for centuries.
The Coca-Cola bottle inscription.
The largest logo of Coca-Cola is located in northern Chile, near the town of Arika. The size of the composition is 100 by 40 meters.
The logo of Coca-Cola was created in 1992, its inauguration was timed to coincide with the centennial of the company. It took 70,000 bottles from the Coca-Cola beverage, which several dozens of people secured on the mountainside within a month, to build the logo.
The Coca-Cola logo is erected in honor of the company’s centennial.
It took 70,000 bottles to create the 100 x 40-meter logo.
Comments to place Irina : The Coca-Cola logo in Chile doesn’t bother anyone in principle. Not for me anyway. Sometimes you like something, a T-shirt or a cup with “Coca-Cola” written on it. Phew!
Svetlana: I don’t even know places that don’t have Coca-Cola ads. I guess all they have to do is advertise in Antarctica and on the moon to complete the whole mess of our world.
Arseny Karasin : The Coca-Cola sign is definitely a paid promotion. I have yet to see people in the world who are so devoted to this drink that they put up huge signs. And considering that labor is not very expensive in Chile, I assume that the marketers hired local peasants to put up the signs in the mountains.
Stokes Island Smile
Lost amongst its peers in the poorly developed coastal waters of southern Chile, Stokes Island smiles good-naturedly. The unremarkable uninhabited island shows the world its irrepressible optimism and faith in the future!
Stokes Island is part of Isla Magdalena National Park. People appear in these parts very rarely – to the nearest town of Puerto Montt is 300 kilometers away. But the island can admire the annual migration of whales and other animals.
The smiling face of Stokes Island reveals to the world an unabashed optimism
Comments on location Alsou : As soon as the two-legged inhabitants appear there, the smile of Stokes Island will immediately disappear. That’s for sure.
Svetlana : Stokes is an unusually green island. How can it be? Is it absolutely covered with grass? As the song says: absolutely all covered with green… Are not these eyes the craters of extinct volcanoes?
Anaska1998 : This is a nice place, greenery and no cities nearby. The nature is purest. That’s why the smiley face is smiling. And if you look carefully in that region, you can also see a piggy and a ghost.
Star of David
Many objects in the shape of regular circles can be found in the mountains in northern Chile, in the province of Antofagasta. These are not drawings of ancient civilizations (such as the Nazca drawings in Peru) but targets for warplanes from a nearby military base.
During the Pinachet dictatorship, the Cerro Morena military base was a place where opponents of the regime were tortured and shot. Therefore, locals have mostly negative associations with this place.
There are many targets in the immediate vicinity of the Star of David
The pilots of the Cerro Morena military base not only shot at such targets, but also at live, unarmed people
Comments Off on Samdurak Place : The Star of David was either created by Jews or by Jew-haters.
Prototype : A Star of David in Chile? So? I wouldn’t be surprised if it turned out that the head of the warehouse at that military base was Yosya Rabinovich.
Arseny Karasin : Jews would certainly not have painted the Star of David as targets. Most likely some local fascists or Muslim Arabs could have done it.
The huge geoglyphs in northern Chile are very similar in structure to the Nazca drawings. The main difference between the two interesting places is that the Chiz drawings are located on a mountainside and therefore clearly visible even from the ground, while the Nazca drawings can only be seen from the air.
Chiza drawings are located in the Atacama desert, 80 kilometers from the city of Arika. The altitude of about 800 meters. Presumably, the drawings Chiza created between X and XIV century AD.
Chiza’s drawings are clearly visible from the highway
Cheese’s drawings, captured by Google satellite
Comments on Oscar’s place : If the researchers are not mistaken Cheese’s drawings are quite fresh. And very similar to the images of ancient Egypt.
Slavka : Very cool drawings. With a good imagination you can see a lot of poses from the Kamasutra. I’m very amused by the man climbing the stairs.
The Andes in northern Chile are very rich in giant doodles. There are about four hundred Pintados drawings in a wide area. The shapes of the images are very simple and in them it is not difficult to guess birds, fish, animals, people and geometric figures.
A scattering of geometric shapes in the drawings of Pintados
The drawings of Pintados are made by simply digging out hollows in the ground
Comments on location Alex : I wonder if it is possible to hire some kind of flying machine there to see it all?
Vladimir Vladimirovich : It has long been known that it is not necessary to hire a plane to look at the drawings. To do this (although not completely safe) you can climb the neighboring mountain. Scientists, as usual here, have made many theories about the purpose of these doodles. But what is there to show off – the usual chaotic drawings without any meaning.
Sergey Grabal: The ancient inhabitants of South America had no airplanes or balloons. And they did not communicate with alien civilizations, as some hoaxers think here, the inhabitants of the vast plains of Russia. Well think with your head even a little bit, how could people still see these drawings, not having any aircraft? Everything outrageously simple, the ancients could easily discern their art from the neighboring mountain. It is such a simple and logical way.