Romania is a country located in south-eastern Europe. It covers an area of 239 thousand square kilometers. Within the state are the Carpathian Mountains and part of the Black Sea coast. The ratio of mountainous and flat areas in the country is almost equal. The number of people living in Romania in 2017 amounted to almost 19.6 million people. The country ranks eighth in Europe in terms of population. Ninety percent are ethnic Romanians; other numerous nationalities include Hungarians, Roma, and Germans. The majority of the population is orthodox, with less than 10 percent Catholic, Protestant, and Muslim.
Under the Constitution adopted in 1991, Romania became a parliamentary republic. The legislative assembly consists of two houses: the upper house, the Senate, and the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies. Every five years the President of the country is directly elected by secret ballot. Since 2014, this elected position is held by Klaus Johannis.
Romania is one of the most beautiful European countries. On a third of the territory of the state are the Carpathian Mountains. Mountain peaks here reach a height of 2600 meters, and some ski slopes rise to 2100 meters. In Romania there are about two dozen well-known ski resorts. Part of the border runs along the Danube River. The country has its own Black Sea coast, where there are many resort areas. In Romania there are almost 1500 mineral springs and more than 150 balneological resorts with mud lakes and mofettes. In the country there are many churches and monasteries most of which have centuries-old history. Romania is rich in national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserves.
Recent historical researches assert that people on the present territory of Romania lived 300 thousand years ago. Shortly before Christ, some tribes who migrated from the Central Europe and the Black Sea settled here. Having mixed with the people who already lived here, some new Thracian tribes appeared – the Dacians and the Getae. They also created their own culture and the state of Dacia. Descriptions of the Dacians and Goths have survived. They were described as courageous, freedom-loving, but irrepressible in their passions and desires. Such a trait as pessimism was also present in their characters. Not without reason funerals became one of the main holidays, it was to rejoice for the one who finally disappeared from this cruel and disgusting world.
Due to the strengthening of Rome and Roman claims to the land, Dacia, after its conquest, became one of the Roman provinces in 106 AD. This happened under Emperor Trojan, during whose reign the Roman Empire maximized its territory. Many people from all over the Roman Empire moved here: it was necessary to settle the land, build cities, roads, and border fortifications. But a little over a hundred years passed, and in 271 the Roman period was over. Historians have not yet been able to discover the real reasons why the Romans voluntarily left Dacia. But an echo of that time remains in the modern name. The word “Romania” has a connection with the Latin Roma, meaning Rome.
After the departure of the Romans, there is almost a primordial darkness in the country. And this period lasts for almost a millennium. The next centuries are characterized by the era of the great migration of peoples. Situated on the path of northern and southern peoples, the country experienced the influence of many tribes. Huns, Goths, Avars, Bulgarians and other peoples visited here. Since the 6th century, the Slavs settled on the territory of modern Romania, 300 years later part of the land came under the rule of the Hungarians.
The emergence of the Romanian principalities refers to the X-XII centuries. Wallachia and Moldova are part of the historical territory of the country, located in the south and east of Romania. It was a time of feudal rule: each principality was headed by a prince, surrounded by nobles and close courtiers who owned local lands. The serfdom developed. For several centuries the people of the country had to fight against the neighbors of Hungary and Poland, as well as the Ottoman Empire, which in the XV century seized the camp and demanded the permanent payment of tribute. Up until the XVIII century in fact the governance of the country was in the hands of the local boyars, who wove sly intrigues with the Turks. Periodically, the principalities of Wallachia and Moldova were jointly opposed to foreign interference. For example, this happened under Mihai the Brave in Wallachia and Petru Rares in Moldova.
The new stage in the history of the state began with the advent of the XIX century, when in 1821 the Romanian thrones were again reigned by their own princes. Russia also showed interest to the Romanian principalities. The first friendly contacts were attempted by Peter I. Catherine the Great was also interested in the Romanian principalities and tried to find a sphere of influence of Russia over Romania. After the Russian-Turkish war, Russia formally began to rule over the Romanian principalities. At this time the founding of the main Romanian state took place. Final liberation from the Ottoman yoke Romania receives in the 70’s, when it and Russia was a union. Since 1871, the country became known as the Kingdom of Romania.
The next fifty years of the country’s development are marked by some important steps: significant industries are created, railroads are built, the first constitution in the history of the country is adopted, and the leading state institutions are developed. As a result of some agreements, Romania receives Transylvania, Bukovina and parts of Banat and Dobrudzha at the beginning of the XX century.
As a result of inept management, the country was dragged into World War II on the side of Nazi Germany. In 1944, when the preponderance of forces became clear, Romania joined the opposite side. After the victory of the Russian army, Romania’s development followed the socialist path. The king was forced to give up the throne. Thus the Romanian People’s Republic was born. The next two decades the country developed under the leadership of the Communist Party of the USSR. Collectivization of all agriculture is carried out, planning is introduced. In the 50’s Romania declares its personal right to the path to socialism and sovereignty from the Soviet Union.
In August 1965, when the Communist Party was led by Nicolae Ceausescu, the state officially became a socialist republic. Inside the country at this time, a policy of hard line and ruthless war with the opposition began to be pursued. High goals were set for industrialization, which somewhat hurt Romania’s economy. The collapse of the economic sector led to a coup d’état in 1989. Ceausescu was removed from power and executed. Elections are held in 1990, resulting in the People’s Salvation Front candidate becoming the head of the country. Failing to lead Romania out of the crisis, the party surrenders power in a new election to the Democratic Forces. In 2000, the Social Democrats and the Nationalists were elected to head the country. Since 2004, Romania joined NATO, and since 2007 Romania is a member of the European Commonwealth.
Romania has become one of the fastest growing countries in the European Union. After joining the EU, the country received more foreign investment and created tens of thousands of new jobs. At the beginning of 2017, the minimum wage in the country was raised, which amounted to 320 euros. There are plans to reduce the tax on individuals from 2018. And if today it is 16% of income, it is supposed to stop at 10%.
Today, Romania is in eleventh place among the countries of the European Union in terms of economic development. Perhaps, this is not such a great achievement. But if we remember to what poverty was at the end of the eighties, then an economic breakthrough is evident. At the end of the 20th century, Romania was living in a regime of severe austerity, there was no electricity, ration cards were in circulation, and the population began to leave. The construction of the new power has not always gone smoothly, and so far part of the Romanian population is in distress. But the overall standard of living is slowly changing.
The country’s industry is represented by oil and gas industries. In Romania there are deposits of various natural resources. There is a clear balance between industry and agriculture, which helps to have inexpensive food and manufactured goods. Different kinds of passenger transport are developed in Romania: ground, air and water transport. In recent years, increasingly popular tourist routes within the country. The ski resorts in the Carpathian Mountains and hotels on the Black Sea coast are world famous. There is also a demand for the network of resorts on mud lakes, thermal waters and mineral springs.
Romania has its own Academy of Sciences, founded back in 1879 and provided with a network of research institutes, scientific societies and schools. Secondary education consists of three stages: preschool and two secondary ones. After school it is possible to continue education in vocational training institutions, trade schools, universities.
Capital city: Bucharest Area: 238 397 km 2 Population: 19 518 117 (2019) Language: Romanian Official website: http://romaniatourism.com/
Flight time: from Moscow – from 3 hours 10 min. from Saint-Petersburg – from 5 hours 45 min. (1-4 transfers) from Kazan – from 6 hours 35 min. (1-4 transfers) from Ekaterinburg – from 7 hours 30 min. (1-4 transfers) from Novosibirsk – from 10 hours (1-4 transfers)
Romania – geographical position and general characteristics of the country
The homeland of Count Dracula and the cradle of gypsies – these are the images that come to mind when you think of Romania.
In this article we will talk about what lives and looks like modern Romania, what are its main attractions, and find out why in the information field it is always in the shadow of its European neighbors.
A brief history of the state
The Romanian state was founded in 1859 in the territory inhabited by the Wallachian and Slavic nations.
As a result of the unification of the Danubian principalities, the United Principality of Wallachia and Moldavia was created.
It is from this moment it is customary to start counting the history of Romania as a separate power, although in the country itself this process is known as the Small Unification.
In spite of the fact that exactly in the course of the creation of the United Duchy in fact, the state of Romania was born, it is considered the Great Unification is the annexation of Bukovina, Bessarabia and Transylvania to it in 1918.
Romanians owe the name of the country to the Thracians. Romanian word romanus, from which the name of the state is derived, means Romanian.
Economic and geographical position of Romania
So, Romania is a state located on the Balkan Peninsula, which geographically belongs to South-Eastern Europe.
The total length of the border is 2508 kilometers, and another 256 kilometers is occupied by the coastline of the Black Sea coast of the state.
The total area is 238,391 square kilometers, which makes it territorially the largest power in the region, and 78th in the world.
Romania borders in the east with Ukraine (on the Danube River) and with Moldova (on the Prut River). The northern border is also contiguous with Ukraine, and its western neighbors are Serbia and Hungary. In the south is neighboring Bulgaria, and the southeastern border is washed by the Black Sea.
The physical map of the world lets us know that Romania is dominated by mountainous and hilly terrain, but about a third of the entire territory is occupied by plains.
Throughout the country pass the Carpathian Mountains, which occupy an impressive proportion of the central part of the state.
Range of heights of Romania, relatively to sea level, is 2544 meters. That is the height of mountains Moldoveanu (Moldoveanul), the highest point of the country. Respectively, the lowest point is the Black Sea coast, which is located directly at sea level.
General information about the country
The capital of Romania is Bucharest, one of the most beautiful cities in Europe.
Founded in 1459 it is a real gem of the country which is famous all over the world for the great architectural works of the Middle Ages and New Times.
The largest cities of Romania are Bucharest (population about 1 880 000 people), Iasi (362 000), Timisoara (300 000) and Constanta (280 000).
The national currency of the state is the Romanian leu (code RON), which as of September 2019 is worth 15 rubles 33 kopecks, and for one American dollar you can buy 4 lei 29 bani.
The bani is one hundredth of a leu, the counterpart of our kopeck.
The official language of the country is Romanian (Wallacho-Moldovan), and the Romanian Latin script is used. At the moment, the national alphabet consists of 31 letters, indicating 46 phonemes.
Flag and coat of arms
The Romanian flag is a tricolor consisting of three vertical stripes of equal size, arranged from left to right in the following order: blue, yellow and red.
Blue symbolizes the freedom of the Romanian people, yellow symbolizes law and order on the Romanian land and red symbolizes the brotherhood of all Romanians. Flag Day is traditionally celebrated on June 26, the day of the adoption of the national flag of the country.
The second national symbol, according to a parliamentary decree of September 10, 1992, is the coat of arms, which is a golden eagle with a sword and scepter in its paws and a cross in its beak.
The bird carries a shield on its chest, which in turn carries the coats of arms of the five provinces of the state.
Although there is no official state religion, the Orthodox faith, practiced by 87% of the population, is the absolute dominant religion.
Bucharest is in the same time zone as Moscow, so there is no time difference between the capitals.
Romania is a member of the European Union, so to visit this country you must obtain either a national visa or multischengen visa.
Form of Government
At the moment, the political system of Romania is a unitary state, republican form of government. There were times, when a totalitarian regime reigned on the Romanian land.
Now the country is ruled by the president, whose term of government makes up 4 years. The head of state is elected by popular vote. Since 2014 and to this day the presidency is held by Klaus Johannis.
The administrative division of the state is built according to the NUTS standard, and includes 5 levels of division of territorial units.