Republic of San Marino
San Marino (Italian: San Marino ), officially known as the Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino ), is one of the smallest countries on Earth, located in southern Europe, surrounded on all sides by the territory of Italy. San Marino is the oldest state in Europe. It takes its name from the saint, the founder of the state.
In 301, a member of one of the first Christian communities from the island of Rab in the Adriatic Sea (the territory of modern-day Croatia), the stonecutter Marino and his friends found refuge in the Apennines, on top of Monte Titano. Soon the community declared independence.
San Marino has been considered an independent state since September 3, 301. Its heads are two Captains Regent (Italian: Capitani Reggenti ), elected for six months. San Marino is often called the oldest republic on the planet.
During World War I the Republic of San Marino became an ally of the Entente.
During World War II the republic declared neutrality, but it did not save her from two weeks of occupation.
In 1951, the government of San Marino decided to open a casino and build a powerful television and radio station. Italy protested and declared a blockade of San Marino. The small state had to relent.
San Marino has a republican form of government. The heads of state are two captains-regents, appointed by the Great General Council. The captains-regents are elected for a term of six months, from April 1 to October 1 and from October 1 to April 1 of each year. They serve as head of state and exercise executive power. The Grand General Council is the parliament of the Republic; it consists of 60 deputies elected by universal suffrage on a system of proportional representation for a 5-year term. The Arengo, or assembly of heads of families, was in ancient times the supreme body, nowadays the Arengo retains the right to modify the Statutes of the Republic and the “right of petition”. This latter right is still in use today – the captains-regents receive numerous petitions submitted by citizens on the first Sunday after April 1st and after October 1st. The petitions submitted must necessarily be examined within 6 months.
San Marino political parties:
- San Marino Christian Democratic Party (SMCDP) – founded in 1945;
- San Marino Socialist Party (SMSP) – founded in 1986;
- The Party of Democrats – formed as a result of the transformation in April 1990 of the Communist Party of San Marino. San Marino Communist Party;
- San Marino Communist Renaissance Party;
- San Marino National Alliance;
- San Marino People’s Alliance of Deputies.
The territory of San Marino is subdivided into 9 regions called “castelli” (lit. “fortresses, towers”):
The total length of the roads is 104 km. The country is situated on the southwestern slope of the three-headed mountain massif of Monte Titano (755 m), which rises above the hilly plain of the Apennine foothills. The rock massifs cover almost 80% of the country, while the arable land accounts for only 16.6%. At the foot of Monte Titano, there are only a few castles and villages that lie in an area of elevated plains.
The climate is subtropical, Mediterranean. The average temperature is +24°C in summer and about +4°C in winter. Due to the elevated position of the country even in the intense heat, it is cool, but nights in winter can be quite cold – the temperature can drop to -6 ° C. Rainfall is 800-900 mm per year, mostly in the fall and winter. Sometimes it snows in winter, but it does not last long. The most favorable time to visit the country is late spring and from July to September, as well as the greatest number of tourists come here at Christmas.
Advantages: tourism brings in more than 60% of the income. Light industry, especially machinery and textiles for sports and expensive clothes. Philately.
Weaknesses : all raw materials are imported.
The main source of income is trade – since 1956 San Marino is a free economic zone with very low taxation. Sales turnover of leather, fur products, alcoholic beverages (including local production) significantly exceeds revenues from tourism.
The main agricultural crops are wine and cheese.
The Historic Center of San Marino and Monte Titano Mountain have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since July 2008 .
There has been a university in San Marino since 1985.
The population of the state is slightly more than 29 thousand people (2005).
More than 16% of the population is under 15 years old and 67% is between 15 and 64 years old. The average age of the population is 39.6 years. Population growth in 2003 was almost 1.4%, the birth rate was 10.49 per 1000 people, mortality – 7.86 per 1000 people, infant mortality – 5.97 per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy is 81.43 years.
About 80% of the population is San Marino, 19% are Italians. More than 13,000 citizens live abroad. Large numbers of San Mariners live outside the country, mainly in Italy, but also in France, the U.S., and Argentina. Italian is the official language; the population speaks Italian. 93% of the population belongs to the Roman Catholic Church.
There are more than 30 settlements in San Marino. The capital of the country the city of San Marino (4.4 thousand inhabitants) is located on the western slope of Mount Titano just below its peak. There are government buildings, architectural monuments and museums in the city. Business is done in Borgo Maggiore (5.2 thousand) which is situated 185 m below the capital. The largest settlement is Serravalle (7.9 thousand). The number of inhabitants in all other settlements does not exceed 1000 people.
Telecommunications in San Marino
The country’s telephone code is +378, while its mobile code and prefix are +3786.
According to Article 84 of the Law of 17 June 2004, the following categories of persons may obtain citizenship of the Republic of San Marino
- A child whose parents are citizens of the Republic;
- A child one of whose parents is a citizen of the Republic (within 12 months after reaching the age of majority)
- A child one of whose parents is a citizen of the Republic and the other is undetermined
- a child adopted by citizens of the Republic;
- a child born on the territory of the Republic, whose parents are not identified.
In addition, it is possible to obtain citizenship of the republic:
- as a result of marriage to a citizen of the Republic after 15 years of being married;
- After 30 years of registered residence in the territory of the Republic.
- Transport in San Marino
- International relations of San Marino
- ↑ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1245
- Template:CIA World Factbook link from UCB Libraries GovPubs in DMOZ in DMOZ
- Wikimedia Commons: Atlas: San Marino San Marino National Center for Metrology and Climology Weather forecast and webcams from EUdocs from riminibeach.it from allcountries.eu
- San Marino: guide at Visit San Marino – The official tourism website of San Marino Contrada Omagnano
- (Main information about San Marino: politics, institutions and much more
1 Also in Asia. 2 Culturally, it is part of Europe, although geographically it is in Asia.
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See what “Republic of San Marino” is in other dictionaries:
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San Marino – Republic of San Marino, state in Europe, on the Apennine Peninsula, surrounded by Italian territory. Founded in 301 by the Dalmatian Marino, who had fled the persecution of Christians by Emperor Diocletian, as a religious community independent of the emperor and of the pope…. … Geographical Encyclopedia
SAN MARINO (state) – SAN MARINO, Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), state in Europe, in the central part of the Apennine Peninsula, surrounded by the territory of Italy (see ITALIA (state)). Area 61 km2. Population 29.6 thousand (2007), approx. 15… Encyclopedic Dictionary
SAN MARINO is the Republic of San Marino, a state in southern Europe. Located on the Apennine Peninsula in the northern eastern foothills of the Tuscany-Emilian Apennines and is surrounded by the territory of Italy (between the regions of the Marche and Emilia Romagna). The length of the border is 39……..Collier’s Encyclopedia
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San Marino – Republic of San Marino State structure Legal system Judicial system. Control bodies State in the north-east part of the Apennine Peninsula, surrounded by the territory of Italy. Territory 61 sq. km. The capital is San Marino. The population is… … Legal systems of the countries of the world. Encyclopedic directory
SAN MARINO – The city of San Marino, capital of the tiny state of San Marino, is located on the western slope of Mount Titano (743 m) of the Apennine range. The city has only 2,400 inhabitants. According to legend, a bricklayer named Marin, together with a group of … … Cities and countries
SAN MARINO (Republic of San Marino) is a state in Europe, on the Apennine Peninsula, surrounded by the territory of Italy. It is the oldest state with republican form of government in Europe and in the world. According to tradition, it was founded in 301 AD by a Christian from Dalmatia, the saint … The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Constitutional Law
SAN MARINO, Republic of San Marino, European state on the Apennine Peninsula, surrounded by the territory of Italy. Population: 61 km2 , approximately 24,100 people (1993). 24,100 people (1993), approx. 15,000 San Marino citizens live abroad. City of ……… Dictionary of the Encyclopedic Region
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San Marino – the most detailed information about the country with photos. The main attractions of the Republic of San Marino with descriptions, travel guides and maps.
Republic of San Marino
San Marino is a dwarf state in southern Europe. It is located in the northeastern part of the Apennine Peninsula, 10 km from Rimini, and it is surrounded on all sides by Italy. San Marino is the oldest republic in the world and one of the smallest countries in the world. The area of the state is just over 60 square kilometers. Despite this, San Marino is an extremely fascinating destination. The historical center of the republic, located on Mount Titano, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has preserved its medieval architecture, atmosphere and ancient fortress walls.
Things to do (San Marino):
€150 per excursion
Welcome to San Marino!
Explore the oldest country in the world and get the most interesting things about it on a sightseeing tour
Geography and climate
San Marino is located in the northeast of the Apennine peninsula near the Adriatic Sea. The Republic occupies the slopes of the mountain (which is actually a high hill) of Monte Titano and its foot. The climate is subtropical Mediterranean. Summers are warm, but not hot. Winter is mild, but colder than the coast.
Slopes of Mount Titano
- Population – 33.5 thousand people.
- Area – 61.2 square kilometers.
- Official language – Italian.
- Currency – euros.
- Visa – Schengen.
- Time – Central European UTC +1, in summer +2.
- Religion – Catholicism.
Best time to visit
San Marino can be visited all year round.
According to legend, San Marino was founded in 301 by the stonemason Marin and his followers. He and his friends were members of one of the first Christian communities. After leaving the island of Rab (present-day Croatia), Marin found refuge on Mount Titano. Here he founded a quarry and built a small cell on top. The fame of his life quickly spread throughout the neighborhood and attracted many pilgrims. A monastery was founded on the mountain, named after St. Marin.
A night in San Marino
The existence of the monastery on top of Monte Titano has been known since the 6th century. The monastery lived an independent life and practically did not depend on anyone. In fact, the independence of San Marino received in 855. The heads of state are two captains-regents, who are elected every six months. It is considered, that San Marino – the most ancient republic in the world and one of the oldest states on the planet. Throughout its history, this country has avoided conflict and lived a quiet peaceful life.
On October 8, 1600 a constitution was adopted. Interestingly, during the Napoleonic wars, San Marino maintained not only neutrality, but also independence. Also in the 19th century, during the Risorgimento period, in recognition of the support that the republic gave to the unification fighters, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the desire of San Marino to maintain independence. During the First World War, the republic joined the Entente. During World War II it maintained its neutrality. However, the country collaborated with Italian fascists and even for some time was occupied by German troops.
Medieval Towers of San Marino
How to get there
The nearest airport is in Rimini, Italy, as is the train station. You can also use the airports of Bologna and Ancona. The Bonelli 72 bus departs daily from Rimini to San Marino at fairly regular intervals. The bus station is located opposite the train station. You can buy tickets from the driver or at the tourist information center.
For how to get to Rimini, see the article about the city.
San Marino is a great place for shopping. Here one buys clothes, shoes, perfumes and cosmetics, electronics and musical instruments. The main advantage of shopping in this tiny state is the absence of VAT on goods.
- Big & Chic – Via Strada dei Censiti, 1 – 47891 Rovereta
- Azzurro – In Via M. Moretti, 23 – 47899 Serravalle
- Atlante – Via Tre Settembre, 17
Historic Centre of San Marino
The gastronomy of San Marino mirrors the cuisine of Emilia-Romagna: tortelloni (tortelli), lasagne, spaghetti with bolognese sauce, passatelli, prosciuto, various types of cheese, cappelletti and pizza.
The streets of San Marino
Old town on top of Monte Titano
The oldest nucleus of the Republic is located on top of Mount Titano. Here is the capital of this miniature state, also called San Marino. This medieval city covers an area of 7.09 square kilometers and lies at an altitude of more than 700 meters. It is an area of ancient streets and stone buildings, ancient walls and towers, as well as the most interesting sights.
The historic center of San Marino was, in fact, fortified by three rows of city walls built in three different periods and largely demolished to allow the city to expand.
San Marino’s most iconic landmarks are the three medieval towers that have been gazing from the summit of Monte Titano for centuries and are symbols of the ancient republic’s freedom and independence.
Guaita or First Tower is the most picturesque and beautiful medieval tower of San Marino. It was built in the 10th century on a rock foundation without any foundation. The tower was reinforced in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is flanked by two rows of fortress walls with battlements and small towers in the corners. The Baroque stone coat of arms dates back to 1600 and was formerly located on the facade of the town hall.
The Cesta or Second Tower is located on the highest peak of Monte Titano and was built in the 11th century. It was used as a watchtower and prison until the 16th century. There is now a museum of ancient weapons.
Montale or Third Tower – built in the 13th century and is the smallest of the three. Around Montale you can see large boulders of very ancient rock, laid out primitively in the shape of a wall. There is also an old prison preserved here.
Palazzo Pubblico or town hall is the main building on Freedom Square. It was built in neo-Gothic style by Francesco Azzurri at the end of the 19th century. The facade is decorated with the coats of arms of the Republic and the four municipalities. Freedom Square is one of the centers of city life. Several times a day there is a changing of the guard ceremony.
Basilica of St.
The Basilica of the Saint is the main temple of San Marino and houses the relics of the founder. It was built in the 19th century and is a neoclassical building with Corinthian columns. The interior is a classical basilica style with a long nave and two side aisles. The current church was built on the site of an ancient religious structure from the 4th century. It is a serious loss for history, as one of the first pre-Romanesque Christian monuments in Italy was destroyed.
Church of San Francesco
The Church of San Francesco was founded in 1361. It is now the oldest religious building in San Marino.