Saxayhuaman is an ancient Inca fortress of the great Incas in Peru

Sacsayhuaman fortress and temple complex

Saxayhuaman is a citadel and temple complex in Peru, an ambiguous purpose and an unrealistically complex structure.

Peru is home to the famous ruins of the Inca temples. At the moment they are huge boulders of stone, located on a stretch of several kilometers.

Ancient people lived in simple caves, and then suddenly began to work stone blocks weighing 100, 200 and even 300 tons! It is considered that the ancient builders delivered even very big stone blocks, putting round stones or logs under the blocks. However, it is not clear, how they could transport huge stones on slopes which angles make from 45 to 50 degrees. How exactly did they move the hundred-ton monoliths? In any case, it was incredibly difficult to move the stones.

Along the road from the quarries to the ancient Inca building complex lie the so-called “tired stones”, which were never delivered to the site of the ancient construction. Even in modern times, the Peruvian authorities cannot remove one of the massive “tired stones” that blocked half of the road, although the monolith does not even need to be dragged uphill, it just needs to be moved to the side.

Ruins of the Inca temples of Sacsayhuaman in Peru

There is a very interesting place in the ancient Inca complex, the Temple of the Ten Nis in Peru. The temple got this name because of the even and proportional recesses in its wall. The niches are in the shape of a trapezoid. Historians believe that the candelabra stood in these relatively small recesses. There is no doubt that this ancient temple had one more wall. The stone blocks lying against the wall with niches testify to it. In this case it speaks of a completely finished, but destroyed structure.

Who had the power to destroy this graceful yet very strong structure? In Peru people blamed the Spanish for this destruction, but there is not a single document that says that the Spanish destroyed anything in the ancient Inca complex. The Spaniards themselves had no reason to destroy what they themselves could use in its entirety. Why and who would want to destroy these amazing structures?

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The construction was started by the tenth Inca – Tupac (Topa) Inca Yupanqui (1471-1493) or his father – Pachacutec Inca Yupanqui (1438-1471). The construction lasted more than 50 years and ended in the time of Wain (Wain) Kapak (1493-1525).

Could an earthquake have destroyed the ancient structure? However, even with strong vibrations, the debris would not be so “scattered” on the ground, rather they would form compact piles.

Maybe it was destroyed by a worldwide flood or a huge tsunami wave? Then it turns out that the ancient Incas lived there before the flood, while scientists say that the Incas appeared in Peru after the flood and simply used the ancient ruins.

Panoramic View and Giant's Aisle

Did the ancient Incas have anything to do with the initial construction? Perhaps they only repaired what they could? All questions and no one definite answer…

One of the most striking Inca building complexes is more than 10,000 years old. It was built in such a way that the stone blocks are perfectly visible from the sky, but who in ancient times could fly through the sky except birds and aliens? Is it possible that this construction was done with the participation of alien civilizations?

Certain signs were left in this place that were meant for people from the future.

Inca polygonal masonry

Many people are convinced that in ancient times, Earth was visited by representatives of extraterrestrial worlds. Is this true and have aliens influenced our history? Could the mysterious and unexplained ancient structures be of alien origin?

Who were they? What did they leave behind? Where did they go? Will they return? Will scientists solve these mysteries of history? All questions are very relevant in our time.



Sacsayhuaman is an ancient fortress of the great Incas located near Cusco, an outpost of the city. If you look at the plan of the city, which resembles a cougar, Sacsayhuaman is located just in the place of its mouth. The landmark is known for its megalithic architecture and the fact that Juan Pissaro died while storming it. There are different translations of the name “Saxayhuaman”: “The Sassy Hawk” (translated from the Quechua dialect), “The Sassy Falcon,” “The Royal Eagle,” “The Marblehead,” and even “The Gray Stone Bird of Prey.”

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Sacsayhuaman and Cusco were connected to each other by labyrinths, which were located under the towers of the fortress: underground passages led to the palaces of Jurin Cusco and Coricancha. They also led through a labyrinth to the secret hiding place of the ruling family. Only the Incas had the right to enter the fortress of Sacsayhuaman, although all the inhabitants of Cuzco could be housed there if necessary. In the event of a siege, water and supplies were stored here. The fortress is thought to have been built between 1493 and 1525, but many scholars believe that it is in fact much older.

Saxayhuaman today

From the city side, Sacsayhuaman Citadel did not need defense – the mountain here has too great an angle of inclination. On the other side, however, it is protected by three parallel rows of 6-meter high serrated walls made of gray limestone. The walls are between 360 and 400 meters long. Some of the stone blocks used to build the walls weigh about 350 tons. The size of the blocks is astonishing: they are 9 meters high, 5 meters wide and 4 meters thick. And the Inca civilization did not know the wheel! This means that the stones had to be dragged from the quarries to the place where the fortress was built! According to the official scientific version based on these data, about 70 thousand people took part in the construction.

However, the Spaniards who captured the fortress and thoroughly destroyed everything they could – the stones were used by them to build houses in Cuzco – could not dismantle the walls, because the stone blocks were too large and heavy for them. So they believed that the Incas had erected Sacsayhuaman with the help of demons. The buildings at the top of the mountain and the dungeon ceilings were completely dismantled by them. In the twentieth century they were restored, but just small stones were used to fill the voids, so we cannot say that the fortress looked like this.

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Next to the walls of the fortress there are seats carved into the rock, bearing the name “Throne of the Inca”. According to surviving evidences, sitting on this throne Inca met the sunrise; during the holidays the mummies of the previous Incas were brought here.

The fortress of Sacsayhuaman is one of the most famous sites in Peru. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site because it contains the solar calendar of the great Incas. Both the calendar and the megalithic architecture fortress itself attracts masses of tourists.

The Mystery of Sacsayhuaman

The mountain top on which the fortress is located is artificially leveled. The stones adjoin to each other very tightly, in addition they are very carefully processed. The stones have an original shape, and it is not clear how the matching “puzzles” were “found”. The mystery of the Sacsayhuaman stones has been the subject of debate among scholars for many years. Some believe that with the level of technology in the Inca Empire, the Incas simply could not have built the fortress themselves. There is also the theory that the Incas could have dissolved the stones with the sap of some plants – in some places the blocks appear to have been “cast” or “molded” rather than hewn. At the very least, it is almost impossible to erect such a structure with “primitive” technology.

How and when to visit the fortress?

A visit to Sacsayhuaman is worthwhile for anyone visiting Peru. You can get to the fortress from Cusco on foot – the road will take from half an hour to an hour (depending on your “walking” speed). From Plaza de Armas you have to walk along Plateros Street, then Saphi Street, and then up the road. You can do this in 10 minutes by car. The fortress has 2 entrances, but a general tourist ticket can be purchased around Control OFEC. The fortress can be visited any day of the week, from 7am to 5:30pm.

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Every year on June 24, the fortress holds an important festival for Peru, the Festival of the Sun, so if you get there at that time, you can be part of the colorful, colorful action.

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