Shanghai Tower – the symbol of China’s boundless future

Shanghai Tower is a symbol of China’s prosperity

Shanghai Tower is one of the highest (literally) symbols of China’s prosperity. It is a beacon in the world of economic growth and cultural prosperity.

Not long ago, in historical terms, China was not the most advanced, ordinary agrarian country. But in recent decades it has taken not seven-mile, but rather seven-hundred-mile steps in its development. China’s economy today is arguably the driving force behind the development of the entire planet. Numerous skyscrapers have become symbols of the country’s rapid growth.

In particular, in Shanghai, China’s second-largest city, there is an area in which three giant spires are located practically “a stone’s throw” from each other. This is the Jin Mao Tower (which means “Golden Prosperity”) with a height of 421 meters. The Shanghai World Financial Center is 492 meters high (sometimes called the “opener” for its appearance). And finally, the crown of the Chinese triad – a 632 meters high skyscraper – the Shanghai Tower. We are going to tell you about it right now.

Shanghai Tower

This is the tallest building in the country, and the third tallest in the world. While the leader in this category is the famous Burj Khalifa in the United Arab Emirates (828 meters high). And the Shanghai Tower is just a little short of the honorable second place, which is taken by the Sky Tree in Tokyo, Japan (634 meters in height).

Shanghai Tower is located in the business district of Pudong, in the heart of Shanghai. Just next door you will see another interesting “needle” of the East Pearl TV Tower.

Shanghai Tower on a map

  • Geographic coordinates ( 31.235391, 121.501402 )
  • Distance from Chinese capital Beijing is about 1100 km
  • The nearest airport Shanghai Pudong is about 30 km southeast of the city (the airport is on the east side)

The three skyscrapers are a complete, ultra-modern composition symbolizing the power, progress and prosperity of the city in particular and the country as a whole. The chief architect of the project, Jun Xia, said on this occasion that, with the construction of the Shanghai Tower, the composition of the three skyscrapers will serve as a stunning representation of China’s past, present and boundless future.

With all due respect to the other two skyscrapers, let’s note that the Shanghai Tower looks the most harmonious and graceful, and stands significantly taller than its brethren (well, or sisters).

3 Skyscrapers in Shanghai

From left to right: Shanghai Tower, Jin Mao and the Shanghai World Financial Center. In the background you can see the East Pearl TV Tower.

Shanghai Tower in numbers

  • Height: 632 meters
  • Number of floors – 127
  • Number of underground levels – 5
  • Total floor area of all floors above ground – 410 000 sq.m.
  • Total area of underground part of the building – 164 000 m 2
  • The tower can accommodate up to 16,000 people daily
  • Parking for 1,950 cars on lower levels
  • Foundation area 30370 m 2

Construction and design of Shanghai Tower

The decision to build it was made in 1993, but the groundbreaking ceremony was not held until November 29, 2008, after the tower had undergone environmental impact studies.

To strengthen the earth, the engineers first embedded 980 foundation piles in the ground to a depth of 86 meters and then poured 61,000 cubic meters of concrete to set a foundation thickness of 6 meters.

A total of 450 concrete mixers were used to build the foundations in March 2010, so this volume of concrete was poured in just 63 hours. It is a record for the fastest foundations of its size.

Shanghai Tower Construction

This is how construction of the Shanghai Tower began

The main frame of the building was completed on August 3, 2013. The exterior finishes were completed in the summer of 2015, and the entire erection process was completed in September 2015. Originally, the official opening of the Shanghai Tower was scheduled for November 2014, but the actual date was significantly pushed back. The opening of the skyscraper took place on February 18, 2015.

The first observation decks were opened to the public in July 2016. The period from July to September 2016 is considered the so-called “trial run” or “commissioning.” Since April 26, 2017, access to the outdoor observation deck on the 118th floor has been allowed.

Shanghai Tower Viewpoint

The tower has a uniquely balanced design. It actually consists of a central building and, surrounding it, an outer shell. The Shanghai Tower was designed by the American architectural firm Gensler with Chinese architect Jun Xia leading the design team.

Structurally, the Tower is nine cylindrical buildings stacked on top of each other. The entire building is surrounded by an inner layer of glass facade. Between it and the outer layer there are nine interior zones, which provide an interesting space for visitors. Its width varies from 90 cm to 10 meters.

READ
Cane Flute Cave - China's underground fairy tale

Shanghai Tower

The space between the building and the glass cladding

Each of these nine areas has its own atrium with gardens, cafes, restaurants, shopping areas and panoramic views of the city.

Both layers of the façade are transparent. This solution was a unique design feature since most buildings have only one facade using highly reflective glass to reduce heat absorption, but the double layer of glass of the Shanghai Tower eliminates the need to clad it with reflective materials. It took 2,589 glass panels to cover the exterior of the building.

Shanghai Tower Glass Panels Installation

Installation of glass panels in the Shanghai Tower

Why put a twist on the Shanghai Tower?

A distinctive new feature of the Shanghai Tower was its “twisted” façade. You’ve probably noticed it. The outer part of the building twists as it grows in height and ends up being twisted by 120 o . So, such a design not only gives the building a wonderful and fantastic look, but also performs a number of functions.

  • Firstly, it is an even distribution of the load created by the wind, and even reducing it by 24%. In terms of stability the Shanghai Tower is the leader in the world.
  • Secondly, the number (and therefore weight) of steel structures was reduced by a quarter, saving about 58 million dollars
  • Thirdly, the usage of round facade allowed to reduce the number of glass panels by 14% (i.e. for cladding a square building of the same area they would need more panels)

Shanghai Tower as a symbol of environmental safety

At the time of its construction, the Shanghai Tower was recognized as the greenest skyscraper, that is, a building that does almost no harm to the environment. Modern materials, innovations, and technology have made the skyscraper the most environmentally friendly building (at least at the time of its construction). Alternative energy sources are used to create an optimal climate inside the building. The skyscraper was even awarded the greenest LEED Platinum rating.

Engineers placed 200 wind turbines at the top of the tower (these are the world’s tallest turbines located in the building). They generate about 10% of the electricity consumed by the entire building.

The skyscraper collects rainwater and reuses waste water, has a combined cooling and heating system, and uses 43 different energy-saving measures. These measures, the designers calculate, reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 34,000 tons annually, as well as reduce energy consumption by 21 percent.

Between the inner and outer cladding there is a so-called green space, with 24 so-called “sky gardens. These are oases among the glass and concrete. Though small, they are very pleasant to the eye.

Shanghai Tower Oases

The green oasis of the Shanghai Tower

Additional features of the tower

At the top of the building on the 125th floor there is an Inertial Damper (aka Harmonic Absorber) to reduce the sway of the skyscraper. At the time of its construction, this device was the largest in the world, weighing 1,000 tons.

In September 2011, Mitsubishi Electric Corp. won the tender to build the elevator system of the Shanghai Tower. The company installed 149 elevators in the building. There are 108 elevators, including 3 high-speed elevators capable of speeds of 64.8 kilometers per hour (that’s 1,080 meters per minute or 18 meters per second). The maximum speed of these elevators is 20.5 meters per second. This is a strong first place in the category “the highest speed ever attained by a passenger elevator installed in a functioning building”. Here, too, the Shanghai Tower beat out the Burj Khalifa.

The building also broke the record for the tallest passenger elevator in the world. Here the elevator is able to rise to a height of 578.5 meters, again beating the record registered at the Burj Khalifa (there, the elevator could only reach 504 meters).

A little clarification – the elevator can not go to an infinite height, do not forget about the weight of its cable.

Shanghai Tower View from the Inside

It is a huge complex that includes shopping areas, offices, entertainment and educational centers. Restaurants and cafes, exhibition and conference halls.

Shanghai Tower inside

Inside the Shanghai Tower

And, of course, breathtaking, observation decks, the highest of which is located on the 118th floor at 546 meters from the ground. There is a fee for access to this platform, 90 yuan for children and 180 yuan for adults. Opening hours are from 9:00 to 21:00.

It is a must-see on this observation deck. The views of the city, especially in the evening, are absolutely incredible. Panoramic glazing creates the illusion of absolute flight. Sometimes it happens that clouds cover the entire city below, and then the feeling of flying is multiplied.

skyscrapers in the fog

Shanghai Skyscrapers in the Fog

Getting there

  • Metro: Take local subway line 2. Get off at Lujiazui Station (use exit #4). It’s only half a kilometer to the Tower.
  • Bus: If you take bus No 583, get off at the intersection of Huayuan Shiqiao and Middle Yincheng roads, then walk to the tower. Bus No791, No961 get off at the crossroads of Lujiazui Circle and Dongtai, then go on foot.
  • Ferry: Take Dongjin Line or Dongfu Ferries and get off at Dongchang Road. Considering the size of the attraction, you won’t get lost.
READ
Miraikan is a museum of the future in Tokyo. Japan. Description, photos.

Interesting Facts

  1. In February 2014 Russian Vadim Makhorov and Ukrainian Vitaly Raskalov from the Ontheroofs team climbed the unfinished Shanghai Tower and made their way to the crane at the very top. They posted a video and photo of their adventure, taken from the top of the tower. Of course, no one gave them permission to go up there and take pictures. Their YouTube video was viewed by over 65 million people. You can also watch these desperate guys in the video below
  2. At the beginning of 2012, cracks appeared in the roads near the construction site of the Shanghai Tower. The builders were blamed for the subsidence, but it was probably caused by excessive groundwater extraction in the Shanghai area, rather than the weight of the tower itself
  3. The original plan was to clad the building in pale green glass. But then the whole building would have merged with the surrounding landscape, so they opted for clear glazing.
  4. In 2016, the height of the Shanghai Tower was planned to be surpassed by the Pingan International Financial Center under construction in Shenzhen. In the end, for technical reasons, its height did not exceed 599 meters
  5. According to different sources the cost of tower construction is estimated from 2.4 to 4.5 billion U.S. dollars
  6. Recall the records of the Shanghai Tower The highest installed wind turbines in the building The highest and fastest elevator The greenest skyscraper The record for the speed of pouring large foundation
  7. The project was to have a 258-room J-Hotel on floors 84 through 110. It was to be the tallest (from the ground) hotel in the world. But there is no evidence that it did appear. If you have such information, please let us know.
  8. It is noteworthy that the developers have not experimented with the name and called the attraction simply Shanghai Tower (which simply means “Shanghai Tower”).
  9. The elevator that takes visitors from the first floor to the observation deck on the 118th floor takes about 55 seconds

Shanghai Tower photo

Shanghai Tower at night 3 Skyscrapers complex in downtown Shanghai Shanghai Tower Outer Glass Wall View from the observation deck Shanghai Tower under construction Shanghai skyscrapers Shanghai triad Shanghai Tower under construction

Shanghai Tower

The thirteenth place rightfully belongs to the skyscraper from the United States. The building height of 472 meters is located in New York.

The skyscraper is unique in that it is considered the largest residential building. This can be explained by the high price per square meter in the area.

All the apartments are expensive real estate, and most of them have a gorgeous view right over Central Park.

The art design highlights the unique consoles that run the entire height of the skyscraper and the glass facade.

This design feature helps the tower blend into the skyline-the view is amazing.

The tower is also part of the Billionare’s Row group, which includes luxury skyscrapers located near the city park.

Burj Khalifa – the tallest building in the world

The leader of the ranking is the tallest building in Dubai and in the world. Until 2010 it was called Burj Dubai, which meant Dubai Tower, but later Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum – the then ruler of the emirate – decided to rename the structure. The new name was given to it in honor of Sheikh Khalifa ibn Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the UAE, and it sounded like Burj Khalifa.

The solemn opening of the skyscraper is dated January 4, 2010. This event should have taken place earlier, on September 9, 2009, but it had to be postponed due to cuts in financing by the developer.

The project was designed by the American architect Adrian Smith, who collaborated with the architectural firm “Skidmore, Owings & Merrill”. The construction division of the company “Samsung” was involved in the construction. During the construction process, many facts about the future tower were under a veil of secrecy, which related primarily to its height. All secrets were revealed only at the moment of its official opening.

The highest multi-storey building in Dubai has such technical characteristics:

  • Height – 828 m;
  • Number of floors – 163 floors;
  • 180 m of the total height is occupied by the spire, which is the longest in the world;
  • There are 8 escalators and 57 elevators in the building. Only one of them, the service one, rises from the ground floor to the top floor, while the use of the remaining elevators requires transfers to move around the skyscraper;
  • The shape of the building is stalagmite, thanks to which it looks fantastic and acquires stability and aerodynamics;
  • An interesting feature of constructions – the presence of condensate collection system, which by means of a pipeline collected in a special tank located in the basement levels of the object. The water thus obtained is used to water the vegetation on its territory.
READ
Udawalawe - National Park of Sri Lanka

The tower has a place for offices, observatory, gyms, swimming pools, hotels (including “Armani” designed by Giorgio Armani), parking lots, residential apartments. The observation deck located on the 123rd floor of the skyscraper is popular among the guests of the complex.

On the Burj Khalifa the Government of the UAE and Dubai decided not to stop, and today the tallest building in the world is being built here. The construction of the structure was started in 2009, but was suspended in 2018 due to funding disruptions. There were plans to restart the process in 2020 in order to complete it in 2021, but so far the tallest building in the world, which is under construction in Dubai, remains unfinished. Given that its planned height (167 floors) exceeds that of the Burj Khalifa, and the height of the facility will be higher than today’s leader.

Presumably its height will be about 1 km. Initially it was planned that it would be 1.6 km high, but after a more detailed study of the ground it was decided to reduce this figure. According to the assurances of the designers, it will be practically a separate city with elite residential apartments, hotels, business and shopping centers, entertainment venues and other elements of infrastructure.

As can be seen from the list of leaders, most of the giants are built in the East, but this does not mean that other parts of the world have nothing to “boast” about. For example, the highest building in Europe today is Lakhta Center erected in St. Petersburg which is 462 m high and has 87 floors. It adorns the shore of the Gulf of Finland, and its construction was completed in 2018.

As for what is the tallest building in Ukraine, the Kiev TV tower with a height of 385 meters can be considered as such. It was built in 1973 and its functional purpose is broadcasting. Among the skyscrapers, which also can be awarded the title of the highest building, located in Ukraine, and include high-rise apartment buildings, administrative, commercial buildings, the height of which exceeds 100 m. There are currently quite a few of them in our country, and their number is increasing. So it is possible that the tallest building in the world in the future will be built here.

It is easy to see not only the dynamics of the construction of giants, but also the constant growth of the bar, which their creators set for themselves. It concerns not only the height, but also the design, infrastructure of buildings, and advanced technology can realize the most daring ideas. Many countries are now competing on this issue, so it is possible that the tallest building in the world in the near future will be able to impress him with its dimensions.

History

Construction

The shopping center was opened on November 14, 2003.

The official opening ceremony was held on December 31, 2004. President Chen Shui-bian, Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou and Deputy Wang Jin-ping cut the ribbon . There are open-air concerts with many personalities such as Ah Mei and Stephanie Sun . Visitors took elevators up to the observatory for the first time. A few hours later, the first fireworks display on Taipei 101 marks the New Year.

Description

The tower is located in the center of the business district

Since its opening, it has caught everyone’s attention – not only for its size, but also for its architectural design, which is no longer repeated on the planet. The skyscraper’s appearance seamlessly blends traditional Chinese concepts with modern technology

At the base of the tower are reinforced concrete cylinders, with nine cylinders stacked on top of each other. The inner volume is the building itself, while the outer facade forms a shell which rises upward, rotating at the same time by 120 degrees.

This gave the Shanghai Tower a curved appearance and protection from wind loads, and it was also possible to save up to 25% of the steel on the structures.

READ
Koh Tao - turtle island of the Gulf of Thailand. Thailand

The use of modern technology made the Shanghai Tower the most environmentally friendly skyscraper. Alternative energy sources are used for heating and cooling.

The tallest skyscrapers

Various secular buildings are mentioned as the first skyscrapers, including:

  • Ditherington Flaxworks , 16 m high , 5 stories, built in 1797.
  • EV Haughwout building , 24 m (79 ft) high , 5 stories, first use of passenger elevator, built in 1857
  • Equitable Life Building , at least 40 m (40 ft) high, 9 stories, built in 1870.
  • The New York Tribune Building , 79 m (259 ft.) high, 9 stories, built in 1875, expanded in 1907 to 19 stories.
  • Montauk Building , 40 m (259 ft) high, 10 stories, built in 1883.
  • Main Insurance Building , 42 m (138 ft) high , 12 stories, built in 1885
  • Lancashire Insurance Building , 10 stories, built in 1890.
  • Manhattan Building , 68.3 m (16 ft.) high, 16 stories, built in 1891.
  • Monadnock Building , 66 m high, 17 stories, built in 1891.

The list of tallest buildings below is based on the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) default metric, which measures the tallest architectural element. Other criteria would create a different list. The Shanghai World Financial Center is not on the list above, but in 2008 it surpassed Taipei 101 to become the building with the highest occupied floor. According to the criterion of highest height (including antennas), the World Trade Center in New York was the tallest building in the world from 1972 to 2000, while the Sears Tower in Chicago (which already occupied a higher floor than the World Trade Center) had its antenna extended to give that building the highest tip in the world; it held the title until completion of the Burj Khalifa in 2010. The Petronas Towers and Taipei 101 have never been the tallest buildings in the world on the criterion of highest tip.

The years of the highest Name Location Growth Increase
1860-1883. Victoria Tower London 98.5 m (323 ft)
1883-1892. Palais de Justice Brussels 104 m (341 ft)
1892-1894 City Hall Vienna 105 m (344 ft)
1894-1897 Milwaukee City Hall Milwaukee 108 m (354 ft)
1897-1899. Hamburg City Hall Hamburg 112 m (367 ft)
1899-1908. Park Row Building. New York 119 m (390 ft)
1908-1909 Singer Building. 192 m (630 ft) 57%
1909-1913 Capital Tower of Life 213 m (699 ft.) 14,4%
1913-1930. Woolworth Building 241 m (791 ft.) 13,1%
1930 г. 40 Wall Street. 283 m (928 ft.) 17,2%
1930-1931. Chrysler Building 318.9 m (1,046 ft.) 12,65%
1931-1971 Empire State Building 381 m (1,250 ft) 19,5%
1971-1973 World Trade Center 417 m (1,368 ft) 9,45%
1973-1998 Sears Tower Chicago 442 m (1,450 ft) 6%
1998-2004 Petronas Towers Kuala Lumpur 452 m (1,483 ft) 2,24%
2004-2010 Taipei 101 Taipei 510 m (1,670 ft) 12,68%
2010 – present Burj Khalifa Dubai 828 m (2,717 ft) 62,61%

Since 2010, the Burj Khalifa has been the tallest building by all criteria. It has the highest architectural element, peak and occupied floor, and is indeed the tallest structure ever built, surpassing the (now demolished) Warsaw Radio Mast 646.38 m (2,120.7 ft) .

After the completion of the Washington Monument in 1884, the tallest building in the world was not usually the tallest structure in the world . The exceptions are 1930-1954, when the Chrysler Building and then the Empire State Building surpassed the Eiffel Tower (which in turn was surpassed by a succession of radio broadcasting masts, starting with the Griffin TV Tower in Oklahoma), and since 2010 with the completion of the Burj Khalifa.

The tallest tower under construction and proposed

CCTV headquarters tower in April 2008.

It lists the skyscrapers under construction and proposed in Beijing, which are planned to be more than 120 m (394 ft) tall, but are not yet completed.

Name Height m / ft. Floors * Year* Status Notes
Z6 site 405 / 1,328 unknown Suggested Also known as Anbang Tower. The groundbreaking was in 2016.
Z10 site. 368 / 1,181 unknown Suggested
Everbright Center. 299,9 / 984 unknown Suggested New headquarters of China Everbright Bank.
Smart Grid Research Center 1 280/919 66 2020 г. In development
Everbright Center. 299,9 / 984 unknown Suggested New headquarters of China Everbright Bank.
Channel ONE 249,9 / 819 55 2023 г. In development
Sunshine Insurance head office 205/673 42 2020 г. In development
Tower A of China Railway Materials Center 203/666 50 2020 г. In development
Tower A of China Railway Materials Center 203/666 50 2020 г. In development
Ping’an Financial Center, Tower A 200/656 42 2020 г. In development
Ping’an Financial Center, Tower B 200/656 42 2020 г. In development
Tongyong Times Tower A 200/656 43 yd. 2020 г. In development
Jujie Financial Tower 200/656 43 yd. 2020 г. In development
8 Chang’An Avenue 180/591 43 yd. N / A
Yao Hui Int’l City 165/541 38 2008 г. Suggested
Beijing R&F Edinburgh Plaza 164/538 37 2008 г. Construction suspended
Greenland Center office tower in Beijing 2 150/492 Suggested
Intercontinental Hotel at Fortune Plaza 120/394 33 2008 г. On hold.
READ
Dudhsagar Falls - Indian Milk Ocean. GOA. India

* Entries in the table without text indicate that information about the number of floors or completion dates has not yet been published.

Shanghai Tower

The Shanghai Tower is a super-tall building under construction in the Pudong district of Shanghai, China.

Soon there will be one more skyscraper in Shanghai. The new giant will grow in the Pudong district, specifically in the famous Luqiazui Financial Center. Next to the Shanghai Tower, as the developers call it, there are already two towers: the Shanghai World Financial Center and Jin Mao, which the Chinese call the Golden Building of Success.

According to the project, the building will be 632 meters high and have a total area of 380,000 square meters.

The developers said that when completed in 2014, the Shanghai Tower will be China’s most majestic building and the third tallest structure in the world, behind the Tokyo Sky Tree (634 meters) and the Burj Khalifa Tower (828 meters) in Dubai.

In 2015, it will yield the first Chinese and the third world position to the Pingan International Financial Center under construction in Shenzhen, and after 2016 it will become the 5th largest in the world, also taking into account the India Tower in Mumbai.The Shanghai Tower is one of the most notable architectural projects of the new times.

1 Burj Khalifa.

Here we come to the first place, which rightfully occupies the highest structure on the planet – Burj Khalifa. This building, which resembles a stalagmite, consists of 163 floors and rises to 828 meters. This giant was built in 2010 in the largest city in the UAE – Dubai. The tower was designed as a “city within a city”, with its own lawns, boulevards and parks. Inside the complex there are apartments, offices, shopping malls and a hotel. The building has 3 separate entrances: the entrance to the hotel, the entrance to the apartments and the entrance to the offices. The Armani Hotel and offices occupy floors 1 to 39. The hotel was designed by Giorgio Armani himself. The 900 apartments occupy floors 44 to 108. Office space occupies floors 111 to 154. On floors 43 and 76 are located gyms, swimming pools, viewing platforms with Jacuzzi. The highest observation deck is on the 124th floor at a height of 505 meters. On the 122nd floor is the Atmosphere Restaurant, which seats 80 people and is the highest restaurant in the world. The artificial tower above the main building has not only a decorative function but also a communicational one, because it is equipped with the necessary telecommunications equipment.

Used literature

Nanjing Greenland Financial Center

In China, skyscrapers are built frequently and in great numbers, no other country builds them at such a rate. There are two main reasons for this – the lack of land for one of the most populous nations on the planet and its rapidly growing economy.

The Nanjing Greenland Financial Center is located in the city of Nanjing, whose name in Russian also sounds like Nanjing. Its construction began in 2005 and ended in 2009, but it became fully operational in April 2010.

The facility was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (Chicago). The original version of the facility was that it would be no more than 300 meters in height, but to life was embodied the project, finalized with the participation of architect Gordon Gil.

China’s tallest building is known for its parameters:

  • The number of floors is 89;
  • The shape is triangular, as is the shape of the site on which the object is erected;
  • Height – 458 m, which is just a few meters less than the tallest building in Europe today – the Lakhta Center.

According to its functional purpose the building is a tower of mixed use. There are stores, offices, restaurants, shopping centers and squares. There is also a public observatory, an underground parking lot, and on the 72nd floor which is located at the height of 287 m there is an observation deck which provides magnificent views. There is an outdoor swimming pool on the roof.

In its design, Nanjing Greenland is associated with the three historic “whales” of Nanjing. These are the Yangtze River and lakes, which are revered in China, the Ningzheng Mountains, and dragons. The natural beauty is seen from the windows of the structure, and the dragon itself is practically symbolized by its design. For example, the center of the pillar is wrapped with two elements that symbolize dancing dragons. The outer walls of the object are made of glass canvases, forming a stepped structure, which resembles its scales.

At nightfall, the Nanjing Greenland is illuminated, illuminating the surroundings at an advantageous angle and resembling a lighthouse.

Rating
( No ratings yet )
Like this post? Please share to your friends:
Free Travels And Tours
Leave a Reply

;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: