South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan State in Africa

South Sudan

South Sudan is a young country in the heart of the African continent. Formerly these lands were called Kush, then Nubia. For a long time these territories were part of Sudan, and only in 2011 they were declared independent. In the east, the country borders with Ethiopia, Uganda and Kenya. In the south, the country shares borders with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in the north – with Sudan. In the west, South Sudan is bordered by the Central African Republic. The country has no access to the sea.

The current capital is Juba, but the government plans to move it to Ramsel. The country is divided into several historical regions: Upper Nile, Bahr El Ghazal and Equatoria.

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History

By the time European countries colonized Africa, there were no state formations in the modern sense in South Sudan. The Arabs also failed to integrate the region over centuries of history. Some progress occurred under Ottoman rule by Egypt, when the Porte-dependent regime of Mohammed Ali began active colonization of the region in 1820-1821.

During the Anglo-Egyptian period in Sudan (1898-1955) Britain tried to limit Islamic and Arab influence in South Sudan by imposing a separate administration of North and South Sudan respectively, and even in 1922 issued an Act to introduce visas for Sudanese people to travel between the two regions. At the same time South Sudan was being Christianized. In 1956 the creation of a united Sudanese state with Khartoum as its capital was proclaimed, and the governance of the country was dominated by politicians from the North who tried to Arabize and Islamize the South.

The signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972 ended the 17-year First Civil War (1955-1972) between the Arab North and the Negro South and gave the South some internal self-government.

After a lull of about a decade, Jafar Niemeiri, who seized power in a military coup in 1969, resumed his policy of Islamization. Punishments under Islamic law, such as stoning, public flogging and beheading, were introduced into the country’s criminal law, after which the Sudan People’s Liberation Army resumed armed conflict.

According to U.S. estimates, in the two decades since the renewed armed conflict in southern Sudan, government forces have killed about 2 million civilians. As a result of periodic droughts, famine, fuel shortages, expanding armed confrontation, and human rights violations, more than 4 million southerners have been forced to flee to their homes and cities or to neighboring countries such as Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and CAR, as well as to Egypt and Israel. Refugees are unable to work the land or otherwise earn a living, suffer from malnutrition and malnutrition, and lack access to education and health care. Years of war have resulted in a humanitarian catastrophe.

Negotiations between rebels and the government in 2003-2004 formally ended the 22-year second civil war, although sporadic armed clashes in some southern regions occurred later. On January 9, 2005, the Naivasha Agreement was signed in Kenya, granting the region autonomy, and Southern leader John Garang became vice president of Sudan. South Sudan was granted the right, after six years of autonomy, to hold a referendum on its independence. The revenue from oil production during that period was to be divided equally between the central government and the southern autonomy leadership, according to the agreement. This somewhat defused the tense situation. However, on July 30, 2005 Garang died in a helicopter crash, and the situation became tense again. In September 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon visited South Sudan to resolve the conflict. The international community deployed peacekeeping and humanitarian forces in the conflict zone. Over a period of six years, the southern authorities have organized relatively complete and effective control of their territory by the current government of South Sudan with all its ministries, including the armed forces and the rule of law. By all accounts, the ability and willingness of the non-Arab region to live independently was not in doubt. In June 2010, the U.S. announced that it would welcome a new state if the referendum was successful. On the eve of the referendum, on January 4, 2011 Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, during a visit to the southern Sudanese capital Juba, promised to recognize any results of the plebiscite, and even expressed his willingness to participate in official celebrations to mark the formation of a new state, if the southerners voted for independence in the referendum. In addition, he promised freedom of movement between the two countries, offered to help the Southerners create a secure and stable state, and offered to establish an equal union of the two states, like the European Union, if the South becomes independent. As a result of the positive outcome of the referendum, the new state was proclaimed on July 9, 2011.

Climate and weather

The climate in South Sudan is subequatorial. It is quite humid here. The thermometer rises up to +35 °С … +38 °С and varies insignificantly during the year. During the dry season the temperature drops only in the nights.

The annual rainfall is up to 700 mm in the north of the country, and up to 1400 mm in the south-west. From November to March is the dry season. In the south of the country there is another dry season in June-July.

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The best time to travel to South Sudan is from late July to October.

Nature

Part of the country is within the area of the Sudd Marshlands. This marshy area was formed by the tributaries of the White Nile, which the locals call Bahr el-Abyal. The river crosses the country from the south and has many tributaries.

The territory of South Sudan is 200-400 meters above sea level. There are also small mountains in the south-west and mountains of the Great African Rift System in the south-east.

Almost all of the country is covered by forests, which are clearly divided into two types. In the North, there is a succession of swamps and lowland forests, overgrown with tropical floodplain forests, which turn into dry savannahs and flood meadows. In the south, there are dense equatorial forests (in the floodplains) and East African dry forests (in the foothills).

In the east, closer to the Ethiopian highlands, there are grassy steppes and semi-desert zones.

In terms of fauna, there are various species of antelope, elephants, lions, giraffes, hyenas, crocodiles and buffalo – and this is not a complete list. There are 12 protected areas and 6 national reserves in the country.

Attractions

The main attraction of South Sudan is its nature. Here are the territories which are the second largest in the world in terms of the number of animal migrations.

Unique places are the Boma National Park and the Southern National Park near the border with the Congo. There are large populations of cognoscenti, kob antelope, buffalo, topi, giraffes, elephants and lions.

The entire country is covered by forests, which can be divided into two types: monsoon tropical and equatorial. River valleys are overgrown with gallery forests, which are quite rare. In such forests you can find mahogany, teak, and rubber-bearing liana.

The Ethiopian highlands and Central African plateau are covered with mountain forests and shrubs.

Cuisine

The national cuisine of South Sudan is not yet completely formed, since the state has only recently been formed. However, even now one can see some regularities in the cuisine and the favorite dishes of the locals.

It is a blend of French, English, and Italian cuisines. Egyptian tinge in the taste of local dishes is not avoided.

The basis of national dishes are beans, beans, eggplant, peppers, sauces, herbs, spices, garlic and onions.

Meat is usually lamb and chicken. As a side dish, they usually serve rice or various vegetables, which are steamed, fried or canned.

Try the dish ful. It is a bean or bean that is cooked with meat, vegetables, and lots of spices. It will be interesting to try sorghum pilaf. Quite popular are kebab, kalavi and traditional kofta.

The desserts here are usually made by hand. Usually they are very sweet and have a lot of cream.

The South Sudanese drink a variety of teas and coffees, but alcohol is forbidden.

Accommodation

There are not many hotels in South Sudan. They are all concentrated in Juba and a few other large cities. The hotels are very good by African standards: the rooms have hot water, TV, air conditioning and refrigerator. You will have to pay about $100 for a double room. The same single room will cost you $75 per night.

Breakfast is not included. There are no additional facilities (such as a spa or casino).

It is almost impossible to rent a house here, and very few people would agree to the conditions in which the locals live: ramshackle huts with thatched roofs, lack of running water and sewerage…

Entertainment and Recreation

There are probably only a few things for tourists to do in Southern Sudan. One of them is a safari. The local authorities have high hopes that the safari and the local national parks will attract tourists to the country.

You must apply for a safari permit, and then you will even be assisted in visiting the parks, will provide guards and show the best places.

Another type of recreation is hiking. Though there are no picturesque places here, but plenty of exoticism!

Also in the capital of southern Sudan, you can visit cafes and restaurants. There are none in smaller towns, but you will find very picturesque places in Juba, though only in the city center.

Shopping

You always want to take a piece of the country you’ve been to as a souvenir. To make South Sudan a lasting memory, you can take African jewelry as a souvenir. Also noteworthy are a variety of products by local craftsmen.

Special mention should be made of African tribal masks, sculptures, wooden figurines and totems, which tourists bring from South Sudan as a memento. African tribes are famous for their skillful products made of natural materials. Such things have a certain magical or religious significance to them.

A good buy would be handmade figurines of zebras, giraffes, elephants and rhinos from noble wood. You may also find the work of local artists interesting.

If you want to add African flavor to your life, bring back from your trip wooden crockery and ceramic vases with African patterns. Also suitable for this are the woolen carpets woven by local women from the threads of rich colors.

Gorgeous and expensive gifts from South Sudan will be figurines of animals and birds of precious metals and stones. In reverence and products of crocodile and snake skin.

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Often as a souvenir purchased national clothes, bright African dresses or costumes for safaris.

In the markets of South Sudan you can also buy original products from palm bast and cane, elephant grass.

Transportation

Transport in South Sudan is poorly developed. Although there are 23 airports in the country, only 2 of them are paved.

The roads here are in very poor condition, many of them are in disrepair. There are practically no paved highways.

The situation is not better with the railroads. Their length is 236 kilometers, and they are also in an emergency condition. There are plans to develop the network, but now the country simply does not have the funds.

There is public transport only in and between the major cities. These are usually very old buses or trains. Fare in them is inexpensive.

You can use the services of locals who will take you to the right place for a reasonable fee.

Communications

Mobile communications here comply with the GSM 900 standard. Roaming is provided by two Russian mobile operators – “Beeline” and “Megafon”. Reception throughout the country is unstable.

There are two local operators in South Sudan: Mobitel and Sudatel. Their tariffs are based on prepayment, and you can buy special cards at all post offices to pay for communications.

There are pay phones in banks and post offices and you can buy calling cards there. Local calls are very cheap, but international calls will cost you a lot more.

All major cities have Internet cafes. From them you can make video calls. Rent a headset and microphone is charged separately.

There is also internet in hotels, cafes and restaurants.

Security

South Sudan has a rather tense criminal situation. There are frequent complaints of extortion, even by the police.

Another danger a traveler in Sudan can encounter is infections. You must be very choosy about what you eat, eat only processed foods and drink bottled or boiled water!

Vaccinations against malaria, cholera, tetanus, typhoid, and meningitis must be taken before your trip.

Business

The country has only recently gained independence, so the legislation on entrepreneurship is not fully formed here. Corruption is rampant, so it is incredibly difficult to handle any kind of documentation legally.

The economy is very unstable, so investing in it will be very risky.

A lot of oil is produced here, but it has little effect on the country’s economy. The region is also rich in other natural resources such as gold, silver, copper, iron ore, and zinc. Investing in the development of their deposits has some promise.

Real Estate

The real estate market in South Sudan can hardly be of interest. There are no conditions for investment here, and for personal purposes, such housing can hardly be called attractive. There is no running water or sewage system. Electricity is only available in the central areas of Juba and is only available to the rich.

The houses here present a rather pitiful sight: made of clay, with thatched roofs, without windows … In a word, you can only dream of comfort here.

Tips for the Tourist

The journey through South Sudan can not be called a safe, so be sure to take care about medical insurance.

It is also better to make copies of the documents that you take with you.

On a trip pack a good first aid kit, and take hygiene products with antiseptic effect. The first aid kit should include medications for gastrointestinal disorders, and antimalarials.

To get into the national parks, you must issue and pay for special permits, and you are not allowed to take pictures there. For excursions to the parks and nature reserves is better to choose comfortable shoes.

Do not forget about mosquito repellents and sunscreen. It is better to wear light, but closed, natural fabrics. In this case it is worth taking some warm clothes, because in the evenings and at night it can be quite cool.

Visa Information

Russian citizens need a visa to visit South Sudan. It costs $100. You will need a passport, which is valid for at least six months from the date of filing, 2 photos, an application form filled out in English, an invitation or hotel reservation, as well as documents on vaccinations.

It is also necessary to register in the city where you are going, so that when you leave the country to show this registration, because without it they will not let you out. Children under the age of 3 are not registered because of the many infections and high mortality rates.

The Embassy of South Sudan opened in Moscow recently. It is located at: Pervy Khvostov Lane, 12. Information may be obtained by telephone: (499) 238-06-67, (499) 238-26-58. The Embassy is open on weekdays from 9:00 to 17:00, with a lunch break from 13:00 to 14:00.

South Sudan

South Sudan is a state in Africa, officially called the Republic of South Sudan (Republic of South Sudan). It is planned to relocate the capital from Juba to the central part of the country in the state of Lakes to the newly established metropolitan area of Ramsel town [4]. It borders Ethiopia in the east, Kenya, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in the south, the Central African Republic in the west, and Sudan in the north. The area is 619,745 km². South Sudan’s sovereign status entered into force on July 9, 2011, following the signing of a declaration of independence [5] . It has been a member of the United Nations since July 14, 2011. It has no access to the sea.

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Contents

Geography

Climate

The dry period in the region is very short and lasts only in the winter months (in the north it is longer, but still lasts for a smaller part of the year). Annual precipitation ranges from 700 mm in the north to about 1400 mm in the southwest. All of South Sudan is covered by forests, which are divided into two parts. These are monsoon (tropical) forests in the south, and equatorial forests in the far south, i.e. monsoon (25%) and equatorial (5%).

Administrative division

South Sudan consists of 10 states, the former Wilayats of Sudan (area occupied is shown in parentheses:)

    (31,027 km²) (77,773 km²) (82,542 km²) (122,479 km²) (79,319 km²) (93,900 km²)
  • Western Upper Nile (35,956 km²) (40,235 km²) (33,558 km²) (22,956 km²)

Territories with disputed status

  • Abyei area in Warab in Southern Kordofan, which is controlled by Sudan. According to the Naivasha Agreement, the status of the territory is to be determined through a referendum. in Eastern Equatoria, controlled by Kenya. Status is unclear due to conflicting colonial-era documents.
  • Kafia Kingi area in Southern Darfur, controlled by Sudan. Area was part of Bahr el Ghazal in 1956, transferred to Darfur in 1960. As of July 9, 2011, the Government of Sudan recognized the Republic of South Sudan within the borders of January 1, 1956,[7] with the Naivasha Agreement referring not to the administrative boundary at the time, but to the North-South boundary line that existed at the time of Sudan’s independence on January 1, 1956. In particular, it is known that this line does not coincide in at least one place (in the Abyei area) with the 1956 provincial boundaries. Which of the administrative boundaries (1956 or 1960) corresponds in its western part to the boundary line is not known, and each state recognizes whichever boundary it sees fit ( cf. the Halaiwa Triangle). The U.S. recognizes the 1956 border (the territory in question is marked as part of South Sudan on CIA maps [8]). Russia acknowledges the provincial boundary at the time of the division (i.e. corresponding to the administrative boundary in 1960), believing it to be broadly similar to the 1956 demarcation line, while the Russian Foreign Ministry and Rosreestr have no information about the exact 1956 demarcation line in that area and regard the existing boundary as temporary until the negotiations end [9].

Population

The population of South Sudan varies from 7.5 million [10] to 13 million [11]. 11] According to the 2008 Sudanese census, the population of the South was 8,260,490 [12] but the Southern Sudanese authorities do not recognize these results because the Central Bureau of Statistics in Khartoum refused to give them the raw data for the region for their own processing and evaluation [13].

The majority of the population of South Sudan belongs to the Negro race and professes either Christianity or traditional African animistic religions [14]. The majority of the population is made up of Nilotic peoples, the most numerous of which are Dinka, Nuer, Azande, Bari, and Shilluk [15].

English is the official language of the country. Most South Sudanese speak a variety of Nilotic, Adamawa-Ubangi, Central Sudanese and other languages and dialects, the largest of which is the Dinka language.

Religion

Most people in South Sudan practice either Christianity or traditional African animistic religions.

History

By the time European countries colonized Africa, there were no state formations in the modern sense in South Sudan. The Arabs also failed to integrate the region over centuries of history. Some progress occurred under Ottoman rule by Egypt, when the Porte-dependent regime of Mohammed Ali began active colonization of the region in 1820-1821.

During the Anglo-Egyptian period in Sudan (1898-1955) Britain tried to limit Islamic and Arab influence in South Sudan by imposing a separate administration of North and South Sudan respectively, and even in 1922 issued an Act to introduce visas for Sudanese people to travel between the two regions. At the same time South Sudan was being Christianized. In 1956 the creation of a united Sudanese state with Khartoum as its capital was proclaimed, and the governance of the country was dominated by politicians from the North who tried to Arabize and Islamize the South.

The signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972 ended the 17-year First Civil War (1955-1972) between the Arab North and the Negro South and gave the South some internal self-government.

After a lull of about a decade, Jafar Niemeiri, who seized power in a military coup in 1969, resumed his policy of Islamization. Punishments under Islamic law, such as stoning, public flogging and beheading, were introduced into the country’s criminal law, after which the Sudan People’s Liberation Army resumed armed conflict.

According to U.S. estimates, in the two decades since the renewed armed conflict in southern Sudan, government forces have killed about 2 million civilians. As a result of periodic droughts, famine, fuel shortages, expanding armed confrontation, and human rights violations, more than 4 million southerners have been forced to flee to their homes and cities or to neighboring countries such as Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and CAR, as well as to Egypt and Israel. Refugees are unable to work the land or otherwise earn a living, suffer from malnutrition and malnutrition, and lack access to education and health care. Years of war have resulted in a humanitarian catastrophe.

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Negotiations between rebels and the government in 2003-2004 formally ended the 22-year second civil war, although sporadic armed clashes in some southern regions occurred later. On January 9, 2005, the Naivasha Agreement was signed in Kenya, granting the region autonomy, and Southern leader John Garang became vice president of Sudan. South Sudan was granted the right, after six years of autonomy, to hold a referendum on its independence. The revenue from oil production during that period was to be divided equally between the central government and the southern autonomy leadership, according to the agreement. This somewhat defused the tense situation. However, on July 30, 2005 Garang died in a helicopter crash, and the situation became tense again. In September 2007, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon visited South Sudan to resolve the conflict [16]. The international community deployed peacekeeping and humanitarian forces in the conflict zone. Over a period of six years, the southern authorities have organized fairly complete and effective control of their territory by the current government of South Sudan with all its ministries, including the armed forces and the rule of law. By all accounts, the ability and willingness of the non-Arab region to live independently was not in doubt. In June 2010, the U.S. announced that it would welcome a new state if the referendum was successful. On the eve of the referendum, on January 4, 2011 Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, during a visit to the southern Sudanese capital Juba, promised to recognize any results of the plebiscite, and even expressed his willingness to participate in official celebrations to mark the formation of a new state, if the southerners voted for independence in the referendum. In addition, he promised freedom of movement between the two countries, offered to help the Southerners to create a secure and stable state, and to establish an equal union between the two states, similar to the European Union, if the South became independent [17]. As a result of the positive outcome of the referendum, a new state was proclaimed on July 9, 2011.

Referendum 2011

Regions and disputed territories of Sudan: South Sudan (participant of the 2011 referendum). Abyei region (scheduled participant in 2011 referendum). Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile (participants in the popular consultations).

From January 9 to 15, 2011, a referendum on independence from Sudan was held in South Sudan [18]. In addition, a referendum on joining South Sudan was to have been held in the areas around Abyei town, but it was postponed [19].

On December 22, 2009, the parliament of Sudan approved the law establishing the rules for the referendum of 2011. On May 27, 2010 the President of Sudan, Omar al-Bashir, promised to hold the referendum on the self-determination of Southern Sudan on a scheduled date, in January 2011 [20]. The staff of UNDP and other international organizations were actively involved in the preparation for the referendum, including providing financial assistance [21]. The official results of the referendum were announced on February 7, according to which 98.83% of the total number of valid ballots had been cast in favor of secession of Southern Sudan. The official proclamation of the new state took place on July 9, 2011, and until that date Sudan continued to exist as a unified state [22].

The period of independence

Even before international recognition, in May 2011, an armed conflict between South Sudan and Sudan in the disputed area of South Kordofan began and continued until August.

In the summer of 2011, the national monetary unit, the South Sudanese pound, was introduced.

In March-April 2012, armed conflict between South Sudan and Sudan took place in Heglig.

On April 18, 2012, South Sudan became a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

Plans are underway to build a new capital, Ramsel, as well as several other new towns and radical reconstruction of some existing ones.

The country, which inherited at least 7 armed groups from the civil wars and has several ethnicities, continues to experience conflicts and uprisings.

Foreign Policy

A number of states announced their intention to recognize South Sudan’s independence well before July 9, 2011. The government of Sudan welcomed the results of the referendum and announced that it planned to open an embassy in Juba after the separation of the state into two parts [23], the neighboring countries, except Chad and initially Eritrea, also welcomed the independence of the region. Several dozen countries have already recognized South Sudan in the first few days. Russia also established diplomatic relations with South Sudan on August 22, 2011 [24].

The UK and a number of other states announced plans to open an embassy in South Sudan [25].

Relations with Sudan, with which there are territorial and economic disputes, remain extremely tense, up to and including armed conflicts. There were armed conflicts between South Sudan and Sudan in the disputed area of South Kordofan in May-August 2011 and in Heglig in March-April 2012.

Economy

South Sudan’s economy is one of Africa’s typical underdeveloped economies. South Sudan is currently one of the poorest countries in the world, but its economy may have some promise.

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Health

South Sudan’s health care system is poorly developed, which, combined with the country’s overall low literacy rate and poor infrastructure, severely hinders disease control.

Malaria and cholera are common in South Sudan. Despite international intervention, many residents do not have access to skilled medical care, which was one of the causes of the outbreak of black fever in 2010 [26].

South Sudan has one of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. However, exact figures for the country are not available [27] . According to the reports of the UN General Assembly Special Session for 2008, 3.1% of adults in the country are HIV-infected. This number is almost twice as high as in neighboring Sudan [28] .

South Sudan has a number of rare diseases that are not found anywhere else outside of the region [29] . For example, in the southern part of the country there is a rare disease of unknown nature, called nodding syndrome. It is common in a relatively small area and affects mostly children from 5 to 15 years old. As of 2011, the number of cases was several thousand. Neither the causes of the disease nor the means of treatment are known [30] .

Education

See also

Notes

  1. ↑ In South Sudan they put into circulation their own currency unit – the pound (Russian.) . vesti.ru (19.07.2011). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked on July 20, 2011.
  2. ↑ The youngest state in the world obtained its own domain (August 13, 2011). Verified on 13 August 2011.
  3. ↑ New country, new number – Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan (14 July 2011). Checked 14 July 2011.
  4. ↑ The World’s Youngest Country Changed Capital – Politico News. Новости@Mail.ru
  5. ↑ RosBusinessConsulting: South Sudan officially became an independent state, July 9, 2011
  6. ↑ The Republic of South Sudan became the 193rd UN member state // UN website
  7. ↑ South Sudan has proclaimed its independence
  8. ↑ Official website of the CIA. Map of the Republic of South Sudan
  9. ↑ Rosreestr – About the border between Sudan and South Sudan
  10. ↑ UNFPA Southern SUDAN . sudan.unfpa.org. (inaccessible link – history ) Checked 1 January 2011.
  11. ↑ Sudan census committee say population is at 39 (English) . sudantribune.com (27.04.2009). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked 1 January 2011.
  12. ↑ Discontent over Sudan census . news24.com (21.05.2009). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked 1 January 2011.
  13. ↑ Isaac Vuni. South Sudan parliament throw outs census results (English) . sudantribune.com (08.07.2009). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked 1 January 2011.
  14. ↑ In Sudan, 4 Million People Will Take Part in Referendum on Independence (English) . rus.ruvr.ru (with reference to BBC) (03.01.2011). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked on 3 January 2011.
  15. ↑ Sudan: One country or two? bbc.co.uk (04.01.2011). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked on 16 January 2011.
  16. ↑ UN Secretary-General arrives in South Sudan. unic.ru (05.09.2007). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked on 23 December 2010.
  17. ↑ Yulia Troitskaya. Sudan’s President pledged help to South Sudan to create a state (in Russian). “RIA Novosti (04.01.2011). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked on January 6, 2011.
  18. ↑ On the eve of Sudan’s referendum, Ban Ki-moon called for ensuring a fair and free expression of will (Russian) . UN News Centre (07.01.2011). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Verified on January 8, 2011.
  19. ↑ Yulia Troitskaya. Sudan’s president suggested to create an association in case of separation of the South (in Russian). “RIA Novosti (08.01.2011). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Verified on January 8, 2011.
  20. ↑ Sudan’s president pledged to hold a referendum on the secession of the south on time. “RIA Novosti (May 27, 2010). Archived from the source on August 22, 2011.Verified August 14, 2010.
  21. ↑ in Sudan delivered the ballots for the referendum, which may result in a new state in Africa (in Russian) . korrespondent.net (with reference to CNN) (29.12.2010). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Verified on 29 December 2010.
  22. ↑ Yulia Troitskaya. Sudan will remain united till July, regardless of referendum results. “RIA Novosti (17.01.2011). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked on January 18, 2011.
  23. ↑ “Khartoum Opens Embassy in Juba as South Approaches Separation” AllAfrica.com
  24. ↑ Russia Establishes Diplomatic Relations with South Sudan // RBC.
  25. BBC News/ ↑ “UK plans to open five new foreign embassies”.
  26. ↑ Rise of deadly black fever in South Sudan . korrespondent.net (with a reference to “RIA Novosti”) (23.12.2010). Archived from the source on March 3, 2012.Checked 1 January 2011.
  27. ↑ James Gita Hakim HIV/AIDS: Update on Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment – including Available South Sudan Literature // South Sudan Medical Journal.
  28. ↑ UNGASS HIV/AIDS in Southern Sudan. UNGASS Report January 2008.
  29. ↑ Emma Ross. Sudan A Hotbed Of Exotic Diseases , CBS News (February 11, 2009). Verified 13 July 2011.
  30. ↑ Meredith Wadman. African outbreak stumps experts , Nature (13 July 2011). Verified 13 July 2011. Thousands of cases of infecting mysterious child illness registered in South Sudan, Wikinews (13 July 2011). Verified 13 July 2011.

Links

¹ Western Sahara, according to UN documents, is a non-colonized territory. The Sahrawi ADR, proclaimed on its territory, is a member of the African Union. Most of the territory is occupied by Morocco.

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