Russia’s largest peninsulas – list, names, maps and characteristics
The number and total area of Russia’s peninsulas is much smaller than the islands. The following peninsulas adjoin the territory of the country: Gydan, Kamchatka, Kanin, Kola, Taymyr, Taman, Chukotka and Yamal. They are mostly located in the Asian part and have a harsh climate. Below is a list, maps and a brief description of the six largest peninsulas of Russia, in order of area.
Chukotka Peninsula on map/Wikipedia
The peninsula has an area of 49,000 km². It is located between the Bering Sea and the Chukchi Sea. The capital is the city of Anadyr. At the heart of the peninsula is a mountainous area. Some mountain ranges exceed 1 km in height. There are lowlands closer to the sea bays of the Chukchi Peninsula. Because of its location in the Far North of Russia, the climate is very harsh. The average temperature in January is -40 degrees Celsius. In summer, the thermometer rises to +10º C.
The area is an arctic desert and forest tundra. Of the trees can be distinguished alder, poplar and larch. The woodlands are home to a small number of mammal species: wolverine, polar bear and wolf. There are several hundred species of birds, and on the shores of the peninsula there are walruses.
Kola Peninsula on map/Wikipedia
The area of the Kola Peninsula is about 100 thousand km². The land is located at the junction of the White and Barents Seas, which washes the shores of Russia. The largest cities are Murmansk, Kirovsk, Apatity, and Severomorsk.
Due to the collision of tectonic plates, a unique landscape has formed on the peninsula: mountains, coniferous forests and plateaus. The Arctic climate has contributed to the formation of numerous lakes, swamps, lowlands and hollows. The Khibiny Mountains are considered the main attraction of the peninsula. Their highest point is 1200 meters high. You can go skiing most of the year: snow covers the slopes from November to June. The region has unique natural areas. One of them is a small desert. The second is the coast of the White Sea, which is dotted with fragments of minerals.
There are three nature reserves on the Kola Peninsula. The area is famous for nesting eiders. The tundra occupies 20% of the land of the Murmansk region. In the forests of the peninsula you can see spruce, birch and larch. A lot of berry bushes, edible mushrooms, rare medicinal plants. The animal world is usually divided into the inhabitants of the tundra and the forest. On the Kola Peninsula, there are over sixty species of mammals. In addition, there are many invertebrates, reptiles, amphibians and fish. The forests are inhabited by bears, foxes and foxes. In the tundra live reindeer, lemmings, voles.
In the waters of the adjacent seas spawn char, salmon and coho salmon. Saffron cod, cod, herring and haddock are commercial fish species. Among the pinnipeds, the spotted seal, the sea hare and the seal can be found. Whaling leads to the fact that on the Murmansk coast, there are fewer than ten species of whales.
Yamal Peninsula on the map/Wikipedia
The area of the peninsula is about 122 thousand km², the peninsula is 700 km long and up to 240 km wide. It lies in the northern part of Western Siberia and is washed by the Kara Sea. Major settlements are Panaevsk, Kamenny Cape and Salemal. Gas and oil fields have been found on Yamal, so the infrastructure of the peninsula is constantly developing.
Due to its location in the northern part of Russia, the Arctic climate prevails on the peninsula. Winters with winds and snowstorms continue for most of the year. Summer temperatures rise to an average of +6º C. On the border with the continent, the tundra turns to forest-tundra. The mossy ground is gradually covered with shrubs. There are no heights on the peninsula, a flat landscape dominates. Rivers flow into the Kara Sea.
Vegetation is represented by conifers and deciduous species. You can find heather and rosemary. The animal world is also diverse. The most common mammals are wolves, Arctic foxes and reindeer. There are a lot of birds, especially representatives of the Red Book. The rivers are rich in commercial fish. The local population catches whitefish, tench, char, muksun and Siberian perch.
Gydan Peninsula on the map/dic.academic.ru
The area of the peninsula is about 160,000 km², about 400 km long and up to 400 km wide. Gydansky Peninsula is located in the West Siberian Plain, bordering the Kara Sea. The peninsula has an arctic climate and winters last more than half a year. Summers are short and cold, and there are polar nights and polar days. There are many rivers and lakes on the peninsula. Often the surface is lowlands and swamps.
Animal and plant life has adapted to the extreme habitat conditions. Flora is scarce because of the permafrost and cold winds. Lichens, mosses, dwarf trees and creeping shrubs are most common. Near the southern border, forest-tundra vegetation appears: stonecrop, polar poppy.
The species composition is determined by low temperatures. On the Gydan Peninsula, reindeer, arctic fox, and fox do well. In summer, a variety of birds come to nest: geese, plovers, and white-fronted geese. Some of them are listed in the Red Book. Walruses, fin whales and polar bears are considered rare guests. The reservoirs are home to a huge number of species of freshwater fish.
Kamchatka Peninsula on map/Wikipedia
The area is 270,000 km², 1,200 km long and up to 440 km wide. Kamchatka is washed by the waters of the Sea of Okhotsk in the west and the waters of the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean in the east. Kamchatka Krai occupies the land of the peninsula, Karaginsky Island and the Commander Islands. Major cities are Vilyuchinsk and Yelizovo, and the regional center is Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
The peninsula is famous for its active volcanoes and springs of mineral waters. Two thirds of the territory is occupied by mountains. In the center is the Klyuchevskaya Sopka, the most powerful volcano in the country. There are several ski resorts in the vicinity of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
The varied flora is due to a combination of volcanic activity, mountain massifs and precipitation. More than two hundred of red-listed plants are found on Kamchatka. Kamchatka brown bear, ermine, snow sheep and polar wolf inhabit the peninsula. In the last century a squirrel came to these lands. Rodents such as muskrats and Canadian beavers are found in the forests. Sometimes, from the tundra side, the peninsula is visited by polar bears.
Taymyr Peninsula on map/Wikipedia
The area is 400 thousand km². The peninsula is the largest in the country and the tenth largest in the world. It is located in the central part of Siberia, between the mouths of the Yenisei and Khatanga. Located in the Far North of Russia, Taimyr is characterized by a harsh climate. Winter lasts 8 months. The landscape consists of tundra and arctic deserts. Stony lands with lichens and bushes alternate with cedar forests. The Taimyr is home to reindeer, musk ox, arctic fox, and sable. Walruses rook on the coasts. Inner and outer water bodies are rich in fish.
The Taymyr Peninsula – plants and fauna
The Taimyr Peninsula is located in the Far North. For many people in Russia, this land remains unexplored. Meanwhile, it is a very interesting tourist destination which has many attractions and beautiful sites. For tourists regularly organize wonderful excursions and travels.
The Taimyr Peninsula is located outside the Arctic Circle in the Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous Region, where its origins lie. The western part is washed by the Kara Sea, the eastern part by the Laptev Sea. The northern part is occupied by the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, while the southern part is occupied by the Putorana plateau.
The extremity in the north is the Chelyuskin Peninsula, ending with the cape of the same name. Communication with the outside world is by rail and road. The main gateway by air is Norilsk airport. It is it that helps the peninsula to keep in touch with the outside world all the time as an autonomous district. It is also possible to get there by Norilsk-Dixon flight.
To understand the nature of the area, it must be divided into the following important parts:
- The North Siberian Lowland, which runs between the escarpment near the Middle Siberian Plateau and toward the southern part of the Byrrang. The mountain range on the Taimyr Peninsula at this point has a peculiarity in the form of a flat relief. It is here that the beautiful Lake Taimyr is located.
- Directly the Byrranga Mountains, which is a peculiar border between the lowlands and the plains.
- Located on the coast of the Kara Sea plain has the largest rivers of the peninsula, namely Pyasina, Khatanga and Taimyr.
At the same time, there are many small islands not far from the coast. The position of the coastline is quite steep, and it is characterized by the fact that in some places there is a rather weighty steep cliff into the sea.
The first explorers of the peninsula were Russian travelers who in the 17th century came to what was then a wild land in search of furs. At the same time a settlement appears on the river Yenisei, which was then called the town of Dudinka.
Subsequently, the development of Taimyr was rapid, as evidenced by some events:
- In the 18th century, the Great Northern Expedition was organized. That’s when the names of Nechaev, Laptev and Minin sounded. A little later Middendroff, as well as Nansen, Toll, Nordenskiöld came along the land for new discoveries.
- Even more active study of the region went in the XX century. One of those who made the greatest contribution to the study and was able to rediscover the Taymir was Begichev. It was to him that the peninsula owed a number of significant events, such as the discovery and naming of islands in the Khatanga Bay. Also Begichev took an active part in rescue operations, rescuing more than one expedition.
- And in the 30s two famous explorers set foot on the peninsula: Ushakov and Urvantsev. They managed to make a complete description of the area and everything that inhabited it in that period, and to translate it into foreign languages.
A complete physical description of the peninsula and its fauna has now developed. There are also quite a few tourist and simply interesting places, which will appeal to both ordinary travelers and extreme travelers.
Climate, Nature, Fauna
The mountains on the Taimyr Peninsula have the most severe climate. The climate belt is such that temperatures reach minus 30 degrees below zero in winter and 10 degrees above zero in summer. Spring comes in June, August is accompanied by occasional frosts. On average, 130 millimeters of rain fall per year, the humidification coefficient is average.
In the east, the area consists of glaciers, and there is a lot of vegetation on the mountain slopes. It is also often found in the stone tundra. The polar night lasts 60 days, and the polar day is 80 days. The winter is very long, up to 10 months, with a weather-short two-month summer.
Despite the climate, the animal and natural world is quite diverse. The least amount of vegetation is located in the Arctic zone. It is here that the moss, the fox-tail and the polar willow can be found.
As for the normal and arctic zone, there is a lot of vegetation. Among the unusual flora can be distinguished such plants:
- Spot triad.
- Moss varieties.
- Ermine, willow, alderwort.
- Bubblewort, shieldwort, fern.
Also on the peninsula fauna is widely represented. In addition to predators, there are some wildlife, which are included in the Red Book:
- A subspecies of walrus that lives off the Laptev Sea.
- Polar bears.
- Eagles and peregrine falcons.
- Mudflaps, along with eiders.
- Bewick’s swan.
It is on the peninsula are rookeries of walruses. Predators eat mostly lemmings. There is also a variety of birds and other fauna, a high volume of rare materials and animals.
Attractions of Taimyr
At first it seems that Taymyr has little to surprise travelers. However, when visiting the peninsula, you will still find something to see.
Taimyr Nature Reserve
The most interesting is considered to be the Taymyr Nature Reserve, you can see it on the map of Russia without too much trouble. But you need a special permit to visit it.
He has a complicated history of creation. Having spread over significant distances, its main function is to protect the rarest representatives of nature, which are included in the Red Book. Despite attempts to create it back in the 1930s, it officially began its work in the late 1970s.
Located in the village of Khatanga in the administrative building of the Reserve. It was named after Vereshchagin. Here are all the materials about mammoths, their remains, photos and documents of scientists of that time, stories about search of minerals in basins.
Another museum was created in the glacier. The subzero temperature is maintained there even in the summer. Together with the Khatanga administration it was created by Frenchman Bernard Buig. It was him, in the 90s, during a trip to Siberia, managed to find a piece of permafrost, which contained the remains of an ancient animal, which is more than 23 thousand years old.
Church of the Epiphany and Khatanga Cross
On the bank of the river near the village is the Church of the Epiphany. It is built of wood, has a dome and a bell tower. Today it is the most northern Orthodox Church in the country and the world. Its predecessor was built in the XVII century, in its place there is now a television tower.
Until the mid-1970s there was a new church building, which had two floors. After a while it was disassembled to be moved to a new place, but the building materials mysteriously disappeared. And only at the beginning of the XXI century it could be completely rebuilt in the specified area.
On the outskirts of the village is one of the four crosses, which are found throughout Russia. The unity of the four endpoints of the crosses symbolizes the unity of Orthodox Russia.
Places to Rest
Tourists should definitely see the untouched beauty of this place. It is important to understand on what you can get to the interesting points. Boats, all-terrain vehicles and helicopters are allocated to help. The following places are mandatory to visit:
- Putoransky Reserve, one of several protected areas of the Taymir, where a special permit is required. Here you can see beautiful waterfalls and spectacular canyons.
- Lake Lama, also called the Taymyr Baikal and northern Switzerland. In addition to nature, it is a great place for fishing.
- There is a boat route to the Brekhovsky Islands, where you have the opportunity to see rare specimens of birds live.
- The bays of the Kara Sea can delight you with stone sculptures and glaciers.
- In the village of Dixon you can learn a lot of information about the history of the region and the exploits of local residents.
Reserves, islands, numerous glaciers and sights will leave no one indifferent and will be a great help to anyone who is interested in geography and history of unusual, but beautiful places, where Taimyr is included in the leading roles.