The 100 Most Famous Remains of Ancient Civilizations

The oldest civilizations in the world

The history of civilizations began about 5500 years ago with the period we call Ancient Civilizations.

The ancient civilizations of the world: description

Signs of civilization:

  • People coming out of caves and settling along rivers;
  • Growth of settlements, development of pottery, emergence of writing;
  • formation of urban culture, architecture, sculpture.

The tribal society characterizes any ancient civilization, while modern civilizations are distinguished by political or class features.Property in ancient times was collective, and the principle of power in them was also exercised on the basis of the tribal feature.

The emergence of the first scientifically proven civilizations began in the 5th millennium B.C. and stopped in the 1st millennium B.C. The first civilizations appeared in the East and Europe. They stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Their earliest appearance was found by archaeologists in the Near East, in the area of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.

Scientists-historians have identified five periods during which mankind evolved. Each period is divided into epochs.

The primitive society existed since 3000 B.C. when Lower and Upper Egypt were united.

This period includes the epochs:

  • Paleolithic and Mesolithic;
  • Neolithic;
  • Bronze Age;
  • Iron Age.

The ancient world lasted from 3000 B.C. to the fall of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D:

  • Hellenism;
  • ancient Rome.

The Middle Ages is the beginning of an era called the “Great Geographical Discoveries” ( from A.D. 476 to the end of the 15th century):

  • early Middle Ages: late 5th to mid-11th centuries;
  • High or Classical Middle Ages: mid-11th to late 15th centuries.

The Early Modern or Late Middle Ages period:

  • Renaissance or Renaissance began in the 2nd half of the 13th century and lasted until the mid-16th century;
  • continuation of the Great Geographic Discoveries, from the fifteenth century to the seventeenth century;
  • the Reformation era lasted from the sixteenth century to the seventeenth century;
  • the first part of the Age of Enlightenment began in the eighteenth century.

The New Age period

  • the second half of the Age of Enlightenment continued into the eighteenth century;
  • the era of the Industrial Revolution began in the second half of the eighteenth century and continued into the nineteenth century.

We live in the period of Modern History, which began in 1918 and continues into the present.

Ancient civilizations

List of ancient civilizations

  1. Ancient Mesopotamia (3500 – 500 BC).
  2. Indian civilization (3300 – 1300 BC).
  3. Ancient Egypt (3100-332 BC).
  4. Ancient Greece (3000 – 30 B.C.).
  5. Cretan Minoan (2600 – 1400 BC).
  6. Ancient Chinese (2070 – 500 BC).
  7. Nubian civilization (2000 – 1000 BC).
  8. Hittite civilization (1600 – 1178 BC).
  9. Olmec civilization (1500 – 401 BC).
  10. Phoenician civilization (1200 – 332 BC).
  11. Mayan civilization (1200 – 900 BC).
  12. Chavin civilization (898 – 200 B.C.).
  13. Ancient Rome (27 BC – 476 AD).


Chavin civilization (898 – 200 BC).

Located in what is now Peru, in the Mosna Valley, at the confluence of the Mosna and Huachexa rivers. Territorially it is South America, the northern highlands of the Andes, the longest and highest mountain systems on the planet.

Scientists have discovered an entire complex of archaeological monuments located at an altitude of 3,200 meters above sea level, 250 km north of the Peruvian capital, Lima. Among these monuments, the most valuable is a temple complex with numerous underground galleries.

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The Chavians learned to smelt metals and make jewelry and built canals.


Olmec Civilization (1500-401 BC).

The Olmecs are considered a highly developed civilization of Central America. They occupied the territory of modern Mexico. Settlements were small, the largest being the city of San Lorenzo.

Occupations: farming, bee-keeping, pottery, weaving, fishing, cattle breeding, construction of cult temples. The Olmecs were also engaged in stone-carving and the production of pottery. They were noted for their knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. The Olmecs invented the lunar calendar and the ball game. The Olmec civilization was characterized by the creation of monuments. Scientists have found stone heads in the area, ranging in height from 1.5 to 3 meters and weighing from 5 to 40 tons.

Historians speculate that the civilization was destroyed due to an uprising of the poor, which resulted in the stone heads being mutilated and buried in the ground.

Hittite Civilization (1600 – 1178 B.C.)

The Hittites were an Indo-European people who settled in Asia Minor, where they founded the Hittite kingdom. The first settlements grew up on the site of modern Turkey, then the territory expanded to the lands of Syria and Lebanon. The main occupations of the Hittites were cattle breeding and agriculture. They made pottery and stone products. The Hittites possessed writing on clay tablets. They were the first to invent chariots and used them in battles.

The flowering of civilization began in the second century BC, when the Hittites found deposits of iron ore. First they learned how to smelt it, then began forging weapons and armor. This enabled them to become rich. With this they built up a powerful army.

The reason for the decline of the great civilization historians call the attack of the Black Sea tribes. They cut off the Hittites from the trade routes and ruined the land.

Mayan civilization (2000 – 250 B.C.).

The location was Central America. Writing, art, architecture, mathematics, and astronomy were highly developed. Maya occupied the territory of the current countries: Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras. In total there were more than 1,000 Mayan cities and about 3,000 settlements.

Achieved great success in sculpture and painting, nephrite carving, created their own solar calendar carved in stone. Their astronomical calculations were far ahead of their time. The Maya and Aztecs built pyramids, some of which are larger than those of Egypt.


Nubian civilization (2000 – 1000 B.C.)

The territory of the civilization was in the fertile Nile Valley, north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum and south of Aswan in Egypt. The Nubian kingdom was an independent state with its own culture, traditions and religious beliefs.

Nubian culture was strongly influenced by ancient Egypt. The states traded and often fought each other. The reason for the wars was the fertile land of Nubia, as well as precious and base metals.The historical monuments of the state include the pyramids, of which there are about 290. This is three times the number of tombs of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. It is known that Nubian leaders were buried in the tombs surrounded by hundreds of servants, with all the wealth.

Ancient Chinese civilization (1600 – 1046 BC)

It is considered one of the oldest cultures on the planet. Chinese civilization began in the valley of the Huang He River. Gradually the Yangtze River valley was developed. The ancient Chinese grew rice, later engaged in cattle breeding, goats, and sheep. The area was rich in metals, especially a lot of lead, copper and tin.

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In the 3rd century BC. China expands at the expense of Manchuria and Mongolia, the state is divided into 36 kingdoms. Starts the construction of the Great Wall of China to protect the north from the nomads. At the end of the 3rd century, the kingdoms united under the Qin dynasty. This dynasty was in power for only 11 years. These years are called the heyday of the dynasty, which lasted until the end of the second century. After that, the crisis and decline of the state began.

The periods of power of ancient China were periodically followed by decline. But the state, surviving the crises, revived again, preserving its uniqueness and originality.

The discoveries of the time

Civilization is known throughout the world for its discoveries. Paper, silk, gunpowder, the compass, and the technology of printing were invented by the Chinese.

Irrigated agriculture was used in China. Chinese hieroglyphic writing emerged during this era. In the beginning there were about 30 thousand different characters, later the number of hieroglyphs decreased. China became the birthplace of silk. Technology of silk was kept secret for almost 2.5 thousand years. Chinese craftsmen were able to work with stone and metal, especially with nephrite, bronze, gold. In VI century B.C. in the kingdom of Jin appeared metal money for the first time.

Astronomy developed considerably in China and maps of the starry sky appeared. Chinese astronomers were able to predict lunar and solar eclipses and the appearance of comets.

The sage Kung Tzu (Confucius), who lived from about 551 to 479 BC, had a tremendous influence on the formation of the Chinese worldview. According to his teachings, every person must remember his place in society, be just, humble, unselfish, and put a sense of duty above all else. Confucius introduced the principles of humanism to Chinese culture.

Chinese wall

Cretan Minoan Civilization (2600 – 1400 BC)

It is considered one of the most enigmatic cultures of the Bronze Age. The Minoans built entire cities, in which they built enormous palaces and were able to create beautiful frescoes, jewelry, beautiful ceramics and clay tablets of writing.

The culture began on the island of Crete during the Bronze Age. Later it moved to other islands in the Aegean Sea and mainland Greece. City-states developed on the island. By the beginning of the 17th century BC, the most developed city of Knossos had subjugated the other cities. A powerful navy was established which dominated the eastern Mediterranean. Cities and roads were built. The king was at the head, his relatives were appointed as warlords and viceroys of the cities.

The main achievement of their culture was the so-called palaces. Among the structures, the most powerful was the royal palace complex at Knossos.

The death of civilization happened very quickly and unexpectedly. Being at the peak of its power, the civilization suffered a volcanic eruption that began on the island of Crete. The eruption was so powerful that the water and air were poisoned by toxic emissions, the streets of cities and roads were covered with a thick layer of volcanic ash. The population, fleeing from imminent death, fled the island in terror. The state fell into a deep decline. This was used by the Achaeans, a Greek tribal association, who invaded and conquered the defeated island.

Urban gardens and public gardens from all over the world

The Civilization of Ancient Egypt (3100-332 BC)

The ancient Egyptians were distinguished by their advanced culture. They built unique pyramids, huge sphinxes. Pharaohs ruled the country. This unique civilization was located on the banks of the Nile River.

The first settlers appeared around the Nile valley in the early 3500 B.C. Periodic floods of the great river provided excellent conditions for agriculture.

Discoveries and achievements

The discoveries and achievements of the Egyptians in a wide variety of spheres of life were fundamental to world development. They mined flint, limestone, granite, and other building materials in the foothills. Stone was needed to build the pyramids, the huge stone tombs that were built for the pharaohs. A total of about 100 pyramids were built. The pyramid of Cheops is considered the largest. Its height is 146,5 m, sides at the base is 230 m.

Significant achievements were made by the Egyptians in astronomy. During the study of the temple in Luxor city historians discovered the zodiac signs. The priests had knowledge of human anatomy. They performed complex skull surgeries, performed amputations, and performed eye surgeries.

The Egyptians invented papyrus made of lotus stems, on which they wrote historical chronicles.

Idol worship gave impetus to the construction of temple complexes, the creation of figures on religious themes. Mystical significance was given to individual animals. The figures were often depicted in the temples or sculptures of the sphinx, which combined the features of animals and humans.

Much has also been done in the field of mathematics. The decimal system of counting was created, the Egyptians were able to calculate the area of triangles, trapezoids and circles. Observing the stars, they compiled a calendar, according to which the year was divided into 12 months and 365 days.

Ancient Egypt was the first place in the world to establish political, social, and economic institutions.

Egypt remained the richest country of the Ancient East for a long period. Decline began in the first millennium BC because of political disagreements. The country was ravaged by internecine wars between warring dynasties. Foreign attacks on the great power began. In 332 BC Alexander the Great conquered Egypt from the Persians and established the ruling dynasty of the Ptolemies. Egypt was subjugated to ancient Greece. In 30 BC Egypt became a southern province of the Roman Empire, and in 395 BC became part of Byzantium. In 640 Egypt was conquered by the army of the Arab Caliphate, which conquered the whole of North Africa.

The Indus civilization (3300 – 1300 BC)

Located in the northeastern part of present-day Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwestern India. It was the third most ancient Eastern civilization of the Bronze Age, on par with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The inhabitants were engaged in cattle breeding: they raised sheep, pigs, zebras, and buffalo. They mastered agriculture, applied irrigation to the fields. They planted barley, wheat and other crops in the fields. Elephants and camels were tamed.

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Brick houses were built in the cities. Houses had plumbing and drainage. Various crafts were well developed and trade flourished.

In the second millennium B.C. civilization in the Indus valley began to decline. Historians name frequent floods, impoverishment of the soil, as well as frequent wars as the reasons for this. Frequent tropical diseases also contributed to the decline.

Around 1500 BC the Indus Valley was invaded by Aryan tribes. They brutalized the population, turning them into slaves or servants. Later, the Aryans took control of the entire territory, and Indus civilization waned.

Discoveries, peculiarities of the social structure

Settlements were characterized by a high level of architecture, brick masonry was used in the construction of houses, and a drainage system was used. In large cities, houses had flush toilets connected to a high engineering level sewage system.

The Indians were able to measure length, mass, and time quite accurately. They had their own writing system which historians haven’t deciphered yet.

Social system up to the end is not studied. It is known that all cities were built according to a single principle. Standard solutions in constructions, manufacturing of things indicate that there was a centralized power to which all were subjected.


The Civilization of Ancient Mesopotamia (3500-500 BC)

Mesopotamia was located on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Therefore it was called the “interfluves. This is the territory of the present country of Iraq. This civilization existed for about 25 centuries.

Main achievements

The inhabitants mastered the banks of rivers, were engaged in the drainage of swamps. Invented the plow, which loosened the soil well. They built irrigation structures in the fields, and knew how to create a water supply. The settlements gradually expanded and turned into city-states. Houses were built of bricks, which were made of clay and silt.

In agriculture, wheat and barley were cultivated. They grew vegetables and dates. They domesticated sheep and cows and caught fish in rivers. They mined ore and learned how to make pure copper, then learned how to smelt copper, silver and gold. They made gold jewelry. They created a script called cuneiform. In the archives of the ancient Mesopotamia, scientists have found hundreds of thousands of clay tablets.

The Mesopotamians were distinguished by a deep astronomical knowledge and a high degree of urbanization.

Historical value, impact on human development

Knowledge of ancient culture helps us understand how human society was shaped.

Historians and archaeologists, conducting excavations, study the artifacts found and use them to determine the state of civilization and the level of its development. This helps to study the life and way of life of the ancient society. Many of the insights gained by ancient scholars are still the basis of modern textbooks. For example, the book on geometry by Euclid has not lost its relevance today.

The works of ancient poets and historians occupy places of honor in world culture. Modern artists often turn to ancient culture and mythic subjects. The remains of temples and Egyptian pyramids still fascinate.

The culture of ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome laid a solid foundation for the development of modern culture. Without it, there would be no modern Europe.

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The topic of Ancient Civilizations is very extensive and requires a lot of time to study, which is always in short supply. To free it from student work, turn to Phoenix.Help.

Ruins and Remains of Civilizations

The remains of cities and civilizations attract millions of tourists every year. Everyone loves to climb the ruins and take pictures. Climb on the head of a thousand-year-old Atlantean, take cool selfies and get thousands of likes. The ruins are a reminder to those alive today of the disasters of past centuries that have happened to all civilizations, including these days.

Mizdakhan is a whole complex of historical and archaeological monuments, the top of the western hill is topped by the ruins of the Gyaur-kala fortress built in the 4th century B.C.

Ruins of civilizations – Uzbekistan

The Alexandria Lighthouse became the seventh wonder of the world for a reason – it was the tallest structure of the time, helping travelers stay on their way.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Egypt

The Lycian tombs are unique graves in Lycia, they are interesting and distinctive, which can not be compared with graves around the world.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Turkey

Standing in the shadow of Prambanan and Borobodur, the ruins often go unnoticed, but their history is far more mysterious and enigmatic than one might imagine.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Indonesia

One of the most famous sights on the island of Sicily and all of Italy that is very popular with tourists is the Valley of the Temples.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Italy

When you cross the threshold of the Eco Dream Resort you feel you are in a Languolier movie by the famous director Tom Holland.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Turkey

Where in Italy to see the ruins of ancient Rome, many will name Pompeii, and only a few connoisseurs will remember Ostia Antica, the ancient Roman port.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Italy

Hierapolis is an ancient city, well preserved, with a rich history from the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire, to the Turkish sultans.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Turkey

Crete is the largest Greek island and its infrastructure is better developed than that of the other islands, hence the love of tourists to this island.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Greece

Abandoned pioneer camps are not uncommon in many Russian regions, a sad spectacle of the oblivion of Soviet childhood.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Russia

Buildings in Peru officially date from the 12th to the 15th century AD, we will tell you all about these mysterious artifacts.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Peru

The cemetery was formed in 1561 on the place of the Franciscan monastery, the territory is located around the church Greyfriar.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • United Kingdom

Machu Picchu, Peru, the ancient Inca city and world heritage site on a mountaintop 2450 m above sea level.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Peru

The Acropolis is the upper city, the site of the ancient Greek city as well as a fortified hill. The Acropolis is the center around which the city grew.

  • Ruins of civilizations
  • Greece

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