Tsaritsyno, a state museum-reserve

Tsaritsyno, a state museum-reserve

We have compiled for you a guide to Tsaritsyno, the estate that never became the imperial residence of Catherine II. We tell you why the Great Palace was rebuilt for 20 years, how the landscape park became popular with Muscovites, and who owned the historic buildings in different years.

We have compiled for you a guide to Tsaritsyno, the estate that never became the imperial residence of Catherine II. We tell you why the Great Palace was rebuilt for 20 years, how the landscape park became popular with Muscovites, and who owned the historic buildings in different years.

We have compiled for you a guide to Tsaritsyno, the estate that never became the imperial residence of Catherine II. We tell you why the Great Palace was rebuilt for 20 years, how the landscape park became popular with Muscovites, and who owned the historic buildings in different years.

The Tsaritsyno Museum Reserve is located in southern Moscow. In the XI-XIII centuries, these places were inhabited by the Vyatichi, a tribe of Eastern Slavs. Therefore, there are ancient burials preserved on the estate’s territory. Archeologists found there jewelry, pottery and household items, which are now stored in the museum.

From the end of the XVI century, this land belonged to the Russian tsars and their favorites. First, it was an estate of tsarina Irina, the sister of Boris Godunov. But during the Time of Troubles the estate burned down and scorched wasteland was left in its place, which was called Chernaya Gryazha. In 1633 the land was passed to the boyar Vasily Streshnev, the father-in-law of Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich, the first monarch of the Romanov dynasty. Then it was granted to Vasily Golitsyn, the favorite of Tsarevna Sophia. He built on the site of the estate a three-storey house, planted a birch grove and a garden around it, created a cascade of ponds.

Opera house. Tsaritsyno State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve, Moscow

Figure Bridge Tower. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

Figured Bridge. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

Opera house. Tsaritsyno State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve, Moscow

Figure Bridge Tower. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

Figured Bridge. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

However, in 1689 Peter I deposed his sister Sophia and exiled Golitsyn, and later gave the estate to his ally in the Russo-Turkish War, the Moldavian Prince Dmitry Cantemir. The new owner built a wooden house in the “Chinese style”: with sloping roofs, galleries, and small towers. Later Cantemir’s sons inherited the manor. They planted two fruit gardens and a greenhouse with exotic fruits.

In the spring of 1775, Empress Catherine II visited Chernaya Gryaz. She was so impressed by the picturesque scenery, she bought the estate and surrounding villages for 30 thousand rubles and renamed the village Tsaritsyno.

The residence was designed by the court architect Vasily Bazhenov. Catherine II instructed him to preserve the beauty of the historic park and create an ensemble in which medieval motifs would be combined with elements of traditional Russian architecture. Bazhenov designed the palace complex so that the buildings blended harmoniously into the natural landscape. He decided to use red brick for the facades and white stone for decoration.

The path by the walls of the Grand Palace. Tsaritsyno State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve, Moscow

Autumn leaves on the path in the park. Tsaritsyno state historical-architectural, artistic and landscaping museum-reserve in Moscow

Figured bridge in park in summer. Tsaritsyno state historical-architectural, artistic and landscaping museum-reserve in Moscow

The path by the walls of the Grand Palace. Tsaritsyno State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve, Moscow

Autumn leaves on the path in the park. Tsaritsyno state historical-architectural, artistic and landscaping museum-reserve in Moscow

Figured bridge in park in summer. Tsaritsyno state historical-architectural, artistic and landscaping museum-reserve in Moscow

Construction began in 1776. Two identical palaces were erected for Catherine and her son Paul, and for the Empress’s entourage – the Large Cavalier Corps. Around it were placed the Small and Medium Palaces of the Empress, a kitchen building known as the Bread House, and four outbuildings for servants. By 1785 all the buildings were finished and plastered. The Empress, however, did not like the first version of the main palace. She wrote to Tsesarevich Paul, that the rooms are too small and narrow, the palace inside “should be changed, for so it would be impossible to live in it. Bazhenov the empress dismissed. Continued the work of his disciple and assistant Matvey Kazakov. He dismantled the two palaces and the Grand Cavalier Corps, and in their place built a more magnificent and pompous main palace.

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In 1796 the Empress died, and her successor Paul I ordered “in the village of Tsaritsyn no buildings produce. None of the rulers lived in this residence.

In the early 19th century, Alexander I opened Tsaritsyn Park to the public. There were erected stone pavilions for rest, built a coffee house and a hotel. The residence became a popular place for out-of-town walks, and the greenhouses continued to grow exotic fruits. In 1860 the palace buildings and land plots began to be rented. By the end of the XIX century Tsaritsyno had become a well-appointed and prestigious holiday village. Here the officials, writers, artists, composers and artists spent their holidays.

The arcade of the Grand Palace. Tsaritsyno state historical-architectural, artistic and landscaping museum-reserve, Moscow

The Grand Palace tower. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno in Moscow

The Opera House (Reception Palace). The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno in Moscow

The arcade of the Grand Palace. Tsaritsyno state historical-architectural, artistic and landscaping museum-reserve, Moscow

The Grand Palace tower. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno in Moscow

The Opera House (Reception Palace). The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno in Moscow

One of the most expensive dachas in Tsaritsyn belonged to the chairman of the First State Duma, Sergei Muromtsev. He was married to the Bolshoi Theater soloist Maria Klimentova-Muromtseva and raised three children with her. In the 1890s, the politician built for his family a large two-story house with towers and terraces on the shore of the Upper Tsaritsynsky Pond. It was supplied with running water and electricity, and Dutch stoves were installed. On the territory were erected outbuildings and left a patch of forest for walks.

It was in Tsaritsyn in 1896 that the writer Ivan Bunin first met his future wife Vera Muromtseva. She was Sergei Muromtsev’s niece, and her family rented a dacha nearby.

“We, in spite of our disdain for dachas, were very fond of this area of rare diversity and beauty, with its huge shady park, in which were the Ekaterininsky ruins, overgrown with impenetrable thickets, with the “gardens of Semiramis”, with arbors, gates, with glades, on which grew century-old Siberian cedars, terraces descending to a fanciful pond. But we especially loved the forest, stretching for several versts, and the fields adjacent to it.

Vera Muromtseva. “Architectural excesses.”

After the revolution of 1917 Tsaritsyno was renamed Lenino, the dachas were confiscated and communal apartments were placed there. Also during the Soviet years the buildings housed government organizations. In the late 1960s, the communal apartments in the old dachas were moved to new houses nearby. The area around the Tsaritsyn ensemble became a nature reserve. However many historical buildings by that time had already become ruins and overgrown with trees.

The estate was restored only in the Soviet period. From 1987 to 1995 almost all historical buildings were restored. In 1992, the complex was renamed the State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno.

You can start your walk around Tsaritsyno from any entrance to the park. We suggest passing through the Central Gate. Along the alley you will get to the ponds and see an island with a fountain: in the summer season in the evenings there is a light and music show on it. The ponds are separated by the Tsaritsyn dam, which leads to the Figurative Bridge – the front entrance to the residence. This is the first building built by Vasily Bazhenov. The bridge looks like a fortress structure with massive towers and arches. On it you can get directly to the palace ensemble.

Small Palace. Tsaritsyno state historical-architectural, artistic and landscape museum-reserve, Moscow

Small Palace. State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve “Tsaritsyno”, Moscow Photo: Volodina Olga / Laurie Photo Bank

To the right of the Figured Bridge is the Small Palace: it stands on top of a pyramid hill and repeats its shape. On the eastern facade is the white-stone monogram of the Empress – the same symbol can be seen on the emblem of the Tsaritsyno Park Museum. One of the main rooms of the palace is the Oval Room – a bright study with windows looking out over the Tsaritsynsky pond. It was intended for secluded cabinet studies and confidential conversations. Nearby Bazhenov designed a boudoir for the Empress to take a bath, change clothes and rest after business. The palace was ready by 1785, but Catherine II never entered it.

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In the early 19th century, the building was rented by the Moscow merchant Karl (or Charles) Leken and opened a coffee house there. But he only worked there for a few years. After that the building remained empty for a long time, and by the end of the 1850s, according to reminiscences of contemporaries, had already become a dilapidated “stone semi-circular gallery with one floor”. The palace was rebuilt only in 1995. It has many windows and plenty of daylight, so the building hosts exhibitions of porcelain, glass, ceramics and modern art – objects that do not deteriorate from the sun’s rays and look particularly spectacular in them.

Grand Palace. The State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

Grand Palace. Tsaritsyno State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve, Moscow Photo: Elena Koromyslova / Laurie Photo Bank

Further up the hill rises a red-and-white castle with pointed tower-towers – the Grand Palace. It is the only building in the ensemble that was built to the design of Matvei Kazakov, the author of the Petrovsky Travelling Palace, the Senate building in the Kremlin, and the Moscow University on Mokhovaya Street. In Tsaritsyn, Kazakov tried to continue the work in the style of Vasily Bazhenov, but the palace still violated the original structure: it was several times larger than the other buildings. Its central part would have contained the state rooms, the Empress’s apartments in the west and the rooms of Tsesarevich Pavel and his family in the east.

When the Russo-Turkish War broke out, the Empress ordered the palace to be completed urgently. Kazakov had to abandon the third floor because of the hurry, and instead of a permanent roof, the building was covered with a temporary roof. Then Catherine II died, and the Great Palace never became the imperial residence. At the beginning of the 19th century it began to decay and overgrow with greenery, and soon the iron roof and intermediate floors were falling off. And by the beginning of the 21st century only the main walls were left of the palace. It was reconstructed only in 2000s. Architects recreated the forms and proportions of the building, decorated the roofs with spires, based on an unrealized project by Kazakov.

Now in the palace is the main exposition of the museum. In the hall “Tsaritsynsk Antiquities” are collected all the archeological finds, which were found on the territory of the park during the excavations: from the ornaments of Vyatichi to the clay tiles. The Catherine and Taurida Halls are decorated in the 18th century style. In them you can learn the history of the palace and park ensemble, see paintings, sculptures and tableware from the time of Catherine II. And in special halls for children visitors can learn the history of Tsaritsyn in an interactive way: all items can be touched and twisted.

In addition to drawings and 3D reconstructions, the exhibition “Tsaritsyno of Catherine II” presents video installations about how the imperial residence was built. They consist of small films, directed by Andrei Silvestrov, based on historical documents. Roles in them were performed by famous actors: Yulia Aug played Catherine II, Pavel Derevyanko played Vasily Bazhenov, and Pavel Shumsky played Matvey Kazakov.

Bread House. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

Bread House. Tsaritsyno State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve, Moscow Photo: Elena Koromyslova / Laurie Photo Bank

A gallery-fence with gates connects the palace to the building, which is shaped like a cube with rounded corners. Vasily Bazhenov conceived it as a kitchen building. The architect decided to disguise it as a medieval castle so it would not look out of place in the overall style. He used white stone from Khoroshevskie quarries, which was more resistant to moisture than local materials. Bazhenov decorated the facades with an emblem in the form of a loaf and a saltcellar, and placed a monogram of the letters X and S above it: they stood for bread and salt. So in common people called the house Bread House.

In 1849 Nicholas I ordered to rebuild the building into a hospital for peasants. After that a hotel for dacha owners was located there, and after the revolution the building was used as a communal apartment.

The Bazhenov Bread House was reconstructed in 2006. There is a large collection of arts and crafts from Soviet times in the house. Also here is the permanent exhibition “Why baby bear?”: it includes 110 clay toys, which in the XIX-XX centuries have created Russian, Belarusian, Latvian, Uzbek, Tajik and Dagestan masters. And in the courtyard atrium there are concerts and theatrical events.

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Second Cavalier Building. The State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

The Third Cavalier Building. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

First Cavalier Building. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

Second Cavalier Building. The State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

The Third Cavalier Building. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

First Cavalier Building. The State Historical, Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve Tsaritsyno, Moscow

On the other side of the square, on the bank of the Bolshoi ravine, stand three one-story Cavalier corps in a semicircle. This name appeared only in the XX century, and in his drawings Bazhenov called the building “little houses” and did not mention what they were intended for. Most likely, they were supposed to house the Cavaliers, the courtiers.

The first Cavalier Corps had an L-shape and three rooms: the central corner one and the two adjoining side rooms. In the 1870s it was rented by wealthy officials and merchants as a summer residence. After the revolution the building housed the House of Soviets, a children’s home and a music school. And since 1995 the building houses the administration of the museum.

The Second Cavalier Corps is located in a small pavilion of an octagonal shape. This building had been empty for many years, and in 1994, the first exhibition was opened here. It displayed the main art collections of the museum.

On a hill near the pond is a building with lancet windows, a semicircular ledge and a belvedere tower – it is the Third Cavalier Corps. At the beginning of the XIX century it housed an inn with a hotel. And since 1872 in the building lived a collegiate councilor Ivan Davydov. His younger brother, the famous composer and cellist Karl Davydov, often stayed at his dacha. He conveyed his impressions of his stay here in his instrumental pieces Nocturne and Mazurka, which together made up the cycle Memories of Tsaritsyn.

The musician’s stepdaughter Tamara Volkonskaya wrote: “I remember Karl Yulevich at our dacha in Tsaritsyn; I see him sitting with his cello in our round room near the piano; on the music stand he is looking through notes, occasionally playing individual passages, as if trying some new thing; no one is in the room, the household comes and goes, not paying attention to him…”

In 1927, in the Third Cavalier Building opened the Historical and Art and Regional Museum: it exhibited Bazhenov drawings and objects from the mounds of Tsaritsyn. In summer months it was visited by more than 15 thousand people. In the 1930s, however, the exposition of the museum was changed to an agricultural museum, it ceased to be so popular and soon closed. Now there is a permanent exhibition “Dachnoye Tsaritsyno” in the building. It displays photographs, diaries, and personal belongings of the families who rented dachas at the residence.

The Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Life-giving Spring”. State Historical-Architectural, Art and Landscape Museum-Reserve “Tsaritsyno”, Moscow Photo: Elena Koromyslova / Laurie Photo Bank

Between the Second and the Third Cavalier Buildings is the Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Zhivonosniy Istochnik” – the oldest building in Tsaritsyn. The first wooden church was built in the XVII century. And in 1759, Prince Matvey Kantemir – junior built a brick church with a bell tower. It was decorated with a lot of decorative elements of white stone. Therefore the church blended harmoniously into the ensemble of the residence. But during the war of 1812 the building was badly damaged. In the late 1880s the church was rebuilt for the dacha village, the walls inside were decorated with paintings and stucco. It worked until 1938. Then the Bolsheviks closed the church, and the utensils and icons were destroyed. In Soviet times, the building housed a transformer substation, a printing house and restoration workshops. Since 1990, services have been held in the church again. Paintings and stucco, preserved from pre-revolutionary times, can be seen here.

Tsaritsyno

Museum-reserve “Tsaritsyno”. The Tsaritsyno Museum Reserve, located on the south-eastern outskirts of the capital, includes the namesake palace and park ensemble, an architectural monument of the 18th century, and the adjoining Tsaritsynsky ponds and landscape park. In area it is the largest museum complex in Moscow, in importance it is one of the most important.

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Video: Tsaritsyno from above

The history of the complex

In the old days, Tsaritsyno was called Black Mud and belonged to the Vyatichi tribe: here they arranged sanctuaries, erected altars and buried their leaders. Then two women – Princess Solomonia and Princess Maria (daughter of Kantemir) – cursed these lands because the men spoiled their lives.

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In the 18th century, the territory passed to Dimitri Cantemir, an associate of Peter the Great. His descendant sold the estate to Catherine II, who gave it a new name in accordance with his “office. The Empress enthusiastically set about equipping the place, involving in the project Vasily Bazhenov and Matvey Kazakov, the leading architects of their time. As is often the case with mega-projects, there was not enough money for the realization of the plans and the ensemble was completely put in order only in the 21st century. The museum-reserve was founded in 1984, and the main restoration work was completed in 2007.

Vasily Bazhenov. “View of Tsaritsyn village”. Project drawing. 1776 Figured bridge in Tsaritsyno

Architectural features of the complex

Although there are few truly Gothic monuments of architecture in Russia, the Neo-Gothic style of the 18th century resonated with Russian craftsmen who combined lancet arches, towers, and carved facades with Baroque and Classicist elements. The red-brick, white-stone palace ensemble in Tsaritsyno is recognized as the brightest embodiment of “Russian Gothic” in the country.

Bazhenov’s creations

Covered with a low dome, the two-storey Kitchen Building, or Bread House, which was a square with rounded corners, was intended to serve the appetites of the imperial court. More than 80 kitchens and storerooms were to be housed here. The building was named after an emblem in the form of bread and salt. Vasily Bazhenov prepared the project, but the construction was completed many years after his death, in the 19th century. The compact Small and Medium Palaces, or Opera House, where the Empress, her son and a narrow circle of their closest friends spent their time, were completely finished. Most of the buildings for the entourage have been irretrievably lost, with the exception of the three Cavalry Corps, stylistically harmonious with the palaces. Decorative bridges and gates, according to the architect’s plan, indicate the borders of the complex, but in the absence of walls have no functional load.

Grand Palace Tsaritsyno Monument to the architects of Tsaritsyno – Vasily Bazhenov and Matvey Kazakov

Kazakov’s legacy

The central building of the ensemble was originally designed and built by Bazhenov, but the nearly completed structure seemed too gloomy to Catherine. Matvei Kazakov had to execute the Empress’ will, and designed a giant palace with a majestic central gallery and many towers. The construction, which was in full swing, was interrupted because of funding problems, and then completely frozen. Throughout the 19th and most of the 20th centuries, visitors to Tsaritsyno admired the increasingly dilapidated ruins, until it was decided to restore the building according to the documents that had survived. The new Grand Palace was built with modern materials, but is in keeping with the general spirit and style of the Tsaritsyno ensemble.

Winter in Tsaritsyno

Permanent exposition of the museum

Most guests come to Tsaritsyno to wander through the park and admire the colorful openwork walls of the palaces, but there is also a lot of interesting things inside the buildings. The spacious halls display more than 40,000 works of arts and crafts from nations that were once part of the Soviet Union, and items related to the imperial family. Among the most unusual exhibits are the 12th century decorations, the miraculously surviving sets of contemporary palace art, and portraits of the owner of all this luxury. Photography of the exhibits is allowed, but without the use of flash.

Bridge over the central pond in Tsaritsyno The Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Zhivonosny Istochnik” in Tsaritsyno

Temporary exhibitions

In Tsaritsyno bring valuable exhibits from museums in Moscow and the regions, interesting thematic collections are compiled from the items in the collections of the museum. In 2015, there are exhibitions of porcelain with a military theme, sculptures from the Ostankino Estate Museum, and trellises by French masters. Ask the museum staff about the possibility of taking pictures.

The museum complex as a concert venue

Tsaritsyno museum-reserve became a center of attraction for lovers of classical music and literature. The Atrium of the Bread House hosts organ concerts, recitations, and chamber works are performed in the Music Lounge. The Bazhenov Hall has a capacity for 100 guests, and the most notable events are held here.

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Opera House in Tsaritsyno Inside the Great Palace III Cavalier Building

Tsaritsyn Park and Orangery

The landscape park, so popular in landscape architecture of the 18th century, was one of the first in Russia, laid out outside St. Petersburg palaces by craftsmen specially invited from England. Under the first mistress and at the beginning of the XIX century three huge greenhouses not only delighted the eyes of visitors, but also brought considerable income. From here they supplied exotic fruits, vegetables and herbs to the tables of the aristocracy. Then interest in the elite agricultural projects has disappeared, the buildings were restored less than 10 years ago. The spacious greenhouses are still used for their intended purpose: in them, exotic plants from all over the world are grown, and the assortment of species is reproduced exactly as it was in Catherine’s time. The tour around the orangeries and the park is thematic for adults and children: the First building welcomes guests with the ever-blooming Winter Garden, the Second building and the Vineyard are devoted to fruit, berry, and vegetable growing plants.

Autumn in Tsaritsyno Do you have a nut?

Information for visitors

The whole day can be devoted to viewing the orangeries in Tsaritsyno, so tickets to them are sold separately and cost 250 rubles. Privileged visitors: schoolchildren and students, pensioners and disabled purchase discount tickets for 80 rubles. Access to the park is free from 6 am to midnight, but on the historic lawns and flower beds are prohibited. Greenhouses open at 11 am and take visitors until 6-8 pm Wednesday through Sunday, Monday and Tuesday are days off. Visitors will be offered tours and educational programs, which should be taken care of when planning your visit. Experienced guides will tell tourists about the language of flowers in the 18th century, the role of plants in Christian rituals, the history of garden art, and even teach them how to properly plant seeds and take care of exotic species of fruit trees.

View of the Upper Pond

Tsaritsynskiy Ponds

Ponds, which appeared long before the construction of Catherine’s manor, fell into disrepair after Catherine’s death, they have been cleaned up already in our century, they were equipped with artificial islands and piers. Today they are the oldest and largest man-made waterworks remaining in the capital. The ponds are closed to swimming, but you can ride catamarans and boats here.

Legends of Tsaritsyno

Moscow diggers say that in Tsaritsyno there are underground passages connecting the Small and Large Palaces, and that sectarians gather there. In February 1993 scientists found a large geopathogenic zone under the main palace of the ensemble. Old residents remember legends about curses and speculate whether the new structure will last long.

Information for guests of the museum-reserve “Tsaritsyno

To find the museum is not difficult, it is located within walking distance from the metro stations “Orekhovo” and “Tsaritsyno”, the exact address: Dolskaya Street, 1. There are cafes in the Grand Palace and in the Parade Entrance Hall on the underground level, and several catering outlets in the park. Almost all facilities are accessible to visitors in wheelchairs. It is forbidden to bring pets into the park, and you can’t ride bicycles here. To compensate for this inconvenience guests create all conditions for outdoor activities: in winter they lay ski tracks and fill the rink in the park, in summer they organize a rock climbing wall. Phone for inquiries: +7(495)325-48-44. The official website of the Tsaritsyno Museum Reserve: www.tsaritsyno-museum.ru

The Church of the Icon of the Mother of God “Zhivonosniy Istochnik” in Tsaritsyn

Opening hours and ticket prices

From Tuesday to Sunday the palace complex is open from 11 am to 6-20 pm, Monday – day off. Visitors can purchase a single ticket for the entire complex, including greenhouses, valid for a month, for 650 rubles. Admission only to the Grand Palace and Bread House costs 200 rubles, as well as the Opera House. Beneficiaries will pay 200 rubles for a general ticket and 80 rubles each for visits to individual palaces.

Additional services

Since the total area of Tsaritsyno occupies more than 100 hectares, it is technically difficult to view all the most interesting things at once. For the convenience of visitors there are paid trips to the park by electric car on several popular routes.

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