Volcanoes of Kamchatka, facts and detailed description

Volcanoes in Kamchatka

Volcanoes in Kamchatka are its calling card of the region, all of them are so different that you have to spend more than one day to study at least one.

Among the volcanoes there are many active, the eruption of which causes admiration and fear at the same time. Each year, volcanoes attract hundreds of thousands of tourists. Kamchatka volcanoes are not as bloodthirsty as they are described by some. There are practically no eruptions here. And if there are eruptions, they are not dangerous for the locals. If in the morning the volcano has a dark tint, it does not mean that there will soon be trouble, on the contrary, it is a sign of good weather during the day. Of course, almost every tourist who is near them is in a state of alarm, although in fact they are not dangerous. Volcanoes are an amazing spectacle, it seems as if you are in a completely different world with its own laws and worldview.

Which volcano is the most beautiful in Kamchatka?

No one can give an objective assessment, because all of them are special and beautiful in their own way. But most of all volcanoes Klyuchevsky, Koryaksky and Kronotsky stand out, claiming to be the symbols of the Kamchatka Peninsula. All three of them are remarkable for their sizes and unusual shape of their cones. On the whole, all Kamchatka volcanoes are unique and have their own special history.

Caldera Uzon

This unusual name was given to the ring-shaped gap on the territory of Uzon volcano. It was formed 40 years ago in place of a huge volcano, destroyed by a terrible eruption. The last natural disaster created a one-kilometer diameter crater in the caldera. Finally, within a few decades an amazing natural formation was formed, which has only recently been classified as a protected area.

The diameter of the entire caldera is 10 kilometers. Its whole territory is just studded with numerous riches of Kamchatka: mineral springs, mud baths, lakes, tundra and the most beautiful birch forest. Many scientists and explorers want to get to Uzon. The hot springs are rich in minerals, which have become a breeding ground for amazing algae and microorganisms. There are formidable bears roaming in the forests on the volcano and swans swimming in the lakes. Amazing scenery, don’t you think?

I doubt there is another place like it in the world. The autumn landscape on the volcano is an amazing sight. The birches and the entire tundra are painted in extraordinary shades of gold, red and other fall colors. Every morning in the birch grove one can hear the music of nature created by the rustling of leaves and the singing of birds.

Kliuchevskoi Volcano

Volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka is considered the most famous natural formation in Russia. It was formed about 7,000 years ago in the Holocene. This volcano is a huge cone created by basalt lava layering. All tourists are impressed by its clear lines and regular shape created by nature. Looking at it from aside, Kliuchevskoy Sopka seems to be towering all by itself. But it is not so. When you get closer, you can see small volcanoes Kamen, Ploskaya Blizhnaya and Ploskaya Dal’naya, which are closely intergrown with the big formation.

The volcano has barrancos – small furrows that border the entire Kliuchevskoi cone. Its peculiarity is a column of smoke constantly rising from the crater. This is due to numerous explosions inside the volcano.

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Scientists have found that its height is 4,750 meters. But it may vary depending on the power of explosions. The foothills of the Kliuchevskoy sopka are covered with coniferous forests, which mainly grow spruce and Okhotsk larch.

The first inhabitants appeared here back in the Stone Age. They were the Koryaks and the Itelmen. According to some data, the first people appeared in the Neolithic. For many centuries, the main way of survival was fishing and hunting.

The 17th century was marked with the beginning of development of Kamchatka. It all began with discovering springs with clean water. Then explorers created a settlement here Klyuchi and gave the same name to the volcano.

The volcano was first mentioned by the Russian traveler Vladimir Atlasov in 1697. The first conqueror of the peak was the military man Daniel Gauss, who arrived on the territory of Kamchatka as a member of the Russian expedition. According to historical data, he and his two companions (the names are unknown) climbed to the very top without any special equipment. The venture was very risky, but all went well. Some time after the ascent, the national park together with Kliuchevskaya Sopka was inscribed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Today this is one of the few volcanoes active on the territory of Russia. At its foot is the station of the Institute of Volcanology. The local population call the volcano the abode of the dead. According to them, when it erupts, it means that the dead drown the whales caught in the underground sea.

Scientists have long studied the volcano and found that it erupts about once every six years. Larger and more destructive eruptions occur once every 25 years. Over three millennia, 50 lava eruptions have been recorded. At this point, huge columns of dust and smoke are dispersed throughout the surrounding area, and the flames hold for a week. There is a case where a week turned into three years.

There is still one settlement near the volcano, Klyuchi. The locals are engaged in agriculture, raising cattle and fishing. The most ordinary life, despite the proximity to the huge active volcano. Each year it gathers thousands of tourists, who are attracted besides its history unusual phenomenon: sometimes a strange cloud forms over the volcano, completely covering the crater, like a mushroom cap.

Many more interesting things and photos – Kliuchevskoy Sopka

Karymsky volcano

This volcano is the most active among all the others. Over the century, there were more than twenty eruptions. Many of them were active for years, replacing one after another. The eruptions are explosive in nature. In 1962 there was the most powerful of them, lasting three years. At one explosion blew out more than 3000 cubic meters of dust and gases. In just one day there could be about nine hundred such emissions. Before climbing to the top, it is worth stopping at the ridge of the Little Semyachik, because it offers a fascinating view of the surrounding area.

Unusual look eruption at night. Luminous clouds of smoke, fire and ash burst upwards, illuminating everything around. In especially violent explosions, the spectacle looks even more spectacular.

The history of its origin is quite complicated, but it is worth understanding in order to understand the peculiarity of the mountain formation. Before Karymsky, there was Dvor volcano. It stopped developing after a strong eruption that destroyed it almost completely. In the caldera that appeared immediately after the explosion, Karymsky volcano was eventually formed. But it also suffered a sad outcome. A similar eruption destroyed the central part of the volcano. Over time a new cone rose at the new caldera, which survives to this day. A volcanological station was built at its foot to keep it safe.

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Maly Semyachik volcano

This volcano stretches for three kilometers and is famous for its three craters. An acid lake has formed in one of them over time. Its temperature ranges from 27 to 45 degrees. A large amount of salt and other minerals made its composition similar to sulfuric acid. The lake is believed to have been formed relatively recently during one of the eruptions.

Today the volcano is considered one of the wonders of Kamchatka. If you do get to him, you just have to climb to the top. There you will see a huge lake of acid green color. If the weather is sunny, you can go straight down to the beach in the crater and examine the lake waters more thoroughly. But soon you will have to go back, as it will start spitting out its waters.

Gorely Volcano

It would be more appropriate to call the volcano Gorely Ridge. This name most accurately describes its structure. It stretches westward, and is considered a typical volcano formed from a caldera. Gorely rises to 1,829 meters and has 11 craters. They overlap so interestingly that it creates a funny picture. Those craters that have ever had eruptions are ring-shaped and filled with acidic lakes. In one part of it, the caldera has sunk due to fractures and formed a kind of gateway on its walls. At these points lava flowed freely out of the volcano. Later these holes were plugged with lava.

Avachinsky volcano

It has a complex structure, similar to Vesuvius volcano. It rises at an altitude of 2751 meters. The crater Avachinsky has a diameter of 350 meters and a depth of 220. But at the end of the 20th century, during a violent eruption, the crater funnel was filled almost entirely with lava with the formation of fumaroles, depositing sulfur.

Koryaksky volcano.

This stratovolcano with a surprisingly regular flat cone, rising at 3256 meters. Numerous glaciers descend from its top. Fumaroles are formed near the top, warming the inside of the crater. The volcano is surprising because of the abundance of rocks and volcanic rocks.

Dzenzursky volcano

Dzenzursky volcano ruined long ago. In its crater formed a glacier. In the southeast of Dzenzursky there is a fumarole of 100 square meters. Thanks to it, the temperature of internal waters is almost 100 degrees Celsius.

Vilyuchinsky volcano

Located near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The volcano is considered to be extinct long ago. Its top is cut off, forming small areas filled with ice. Lava, which used to flow from the volcano, has become multicolored because of the fumarole. The volcanic slopes are solidly covered with barrancos filled with ice and firn.

Volcano Sharp Tolbachik

It has a sharp roof formed by a glacier. Its height is 3,682 meters. The foot of Tolbachik is covered by glaciers. The most prominent of them is considered to be the Schmidt Glacier. From here you can perfectly see the barrancos that cut the spurs of Tolbachik. In the west, they have unusual dikes of basalt origin. They are of interest both to researchers and ordinary tourists. From the side, the dikes are very reminiscent of toothed walls and rods.

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Xudac volcano

The volcano is a truncated cone whose craters are filled with acidic lakes. They have a small height of only 1,000 meters. The volcano was formed during the Pleistocene and was then 2,000 meters high. Volcanic activity continued with some interruptions. Numerous calderas of varying age and size were formed as a result.

Ksudach is considered to be the most unusual volcano in Kamchatka. This is because there are lakes with clear water, alder forests grow on its territory and a waterfall takes its source from the caldera.

Mutnovsky volcano

This complex structure of the volcanic massif is 2323 meters high and is surrounded by fumarole zones. It has several craters, near which there is a hot mineral spring famous for its bubbling pots and warm pools. Nearby is also located the Vulkannaya River, which forms a huge waterfall.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

The famous volcanoes of Kamchatka are the calling card of this Russian region, annually gathering thousands of tourists from different parts of the world on this land. The volcanoes are so different that you will have to spend more than one day to get to know each of them. Among them there are many active, their eruption is able to cause contradictory feelings in travelers: excitement and horror, admiration and fear – all at the same time. Kamchatka volcanoes erupt very rarely, without causing harm to local residents. Volcanoes are an amazing sight, attracting holidaymakers to such a far away place. Today we will introduce you to the most famous volcanoes in Kamchatka.

Despite the fact that all volcanoes are magnificent, each in its own way, on the Kamchatka Peninsula three main volcanoes can be distinguished by their size and unusual shape: Klyuchevsky, Koryaksky, Kronotsky volcanoes. Each of them can bravely claim the proud title of Kamchatka’s symbol. But we shall tell about all local volcanoes in details.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

1. Uzon volcano – it is surrounded by a ring-shaped cavity of the same name, which was formed forty years ago after an eruption. Caldera is ten kilometers in diameter, and on this territory there are main riches of Kamchatka: mineral springs with unique algae and microorganisms, medicinal mud baths, lakes with flocks of snow-white swans, boundless tundra, birch forests with threatening watchmen – bears living there. The autumn landscapes, when the forest and tundra are painted in golden and red hues, are especially delightful here.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

2. Kliuchevskoi volcano is a famous natural formation in Russia, which appeared seven thousand years ago. The volcano is shaped like a huge cone, created by layering of basalt lava. Tourists are amazed at the amazingly clear lines and such a regular geometric shape, created by nature. With the main volcano merged smaller volcanoes: Kamen, Ploskaya Blizhnaya, and Ploskaya Dal’naya. The peculiarity of Kliuchevskoi volcano is in the column of smoke constantly rising from its throat, which creates the constant and numerous explosions that take place inside. The height of this Russian volcano is four thousand seven hundred and fifty meters, but it varies periodically: it depends on the power of the explosions. The entire foot of the volcano Kliuchevskaya Sopka is covered with dense coniferous forests – spruce and Okhotsk larch. The first inhabitants took fancy to these places back in the Stone Age, they were tribes of Koryak and Itelmen, they were engaged in fishing and hunting.

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This volcano got its name in the seventeenth century, after the development of the territory of Kamchatka, where they found springs of pure water. A settlement for explorers was founded there, and it was called Klyuchi, just like the volcano – Klyuchevskoy. The first to conquer the top of the volcano was Daniel Gauss, who came here as part of a Russian expedition. He and his two companions climbed up without special equipment, in spite of the enormous risk, everything went well. A national park was created here, which, together with Kliuchevskaya Sopka, made it to the UNESCO World Heritage List. This is an active volcano in Russia, at the foot of which there is a station of the Institute of Volcanology. Scientists have found out that the volcano erupts once every six years, but devastating eruptions occur only once every twenty-five years. It is estimated that over three thousand years, lava has been ejected fifty times. At each such emission of lava, columns of dust and smoke rise into the sky, which gradually disperse over the surrounding area, the flames can last as much as a week or three years, as it was once. But this does not scare the local residents of the village Klyuchi, who, like their distant ancestors hunt, fish, farm, raise livestock, that is, lead an ordinary life, in the shadow of a formidable neighbor, attracting in these lands crowds of tourists.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

3. Karymsky volcano is the most active volcano in Kamchatka, which in one century produced more than twenty eruptions, many of which lasted for years, replacing one another. The most intense eruption happened in 1962; it lasted for three years, generating more than three thousand cubic meters of dust and gases in a single explosion. Sometimes as many as nine hundred eruptions occurred in a single day. Especially delightful look volcanic eruption at night, when the sky rises glowing balls of smoke, ash and bursts of fire, lighting up the neighborhood as white day. Tourists are not afraid of the formidable volcano, making the ascent to its summit, stopping in advance on the ridge of the Small Semyachik to enjoy the breathtaking view around.

The history of the origin of this volcano is confusing: first there was Dvor volcano, which was completely destroyed during its eruption, but in the caldera that emerged after the explosion, eventually emerged Karymsky volcano, the central part of which was also heavily destroyed after the eruption. This is where the caldera arose again and the new cone that we can see today. At the foot of the Karym volcano, a volcanological station was set up to keep the area safe.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

4. Maly Semyachik volcano is an absolutely amazing volcano in Kamchatka, stretching for three kilometers. It is unique in the presence of three craters, one of which, during an eruption appeared acid lake, a kilometer deep, with water of green color, whose temperature varies from twenty-five to forty-five degrees, and the composition of the lake water is similar to sulfuric acid. In sunny weather tourists have the opportunity not only to climb this volcano, but also to approach the lake, however, long next to it should not stand, as it periodically begins “spit out” jets of acid water in different directions.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

5. Gorely volcano is stretched to the west. It is a typical volcano, formed from the caldera. The height of Gorely is one thousand eight hundred and twenty-nine meters, it has eleven craters, some of which are scenically overlapping. The craters, where eruptions occurred, are ring-shaped and filled with acid lakes. In one part of Gorely volcano, the caldera, which descended from the faults, created a kind of entrance gate on the walls. It all looks very unusual, which attracts tourists here.

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Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

6. Avachinsky volcano in Kamchatka has a complex structure similar to Vesuvius volcano. Its height – two thousand seven hundred fifty one meters, and the diameter of the crater – three hundred fifty meters, with a depth of two hundred twenty meters. During the last eruption at the end of the twentieth century, the crater funnel was filled with lava and fumaroles began to form here, depositing sulfur.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

7. Koryaksky volcano is a picturesque Kamchatka volcano, with a very regular and perfectly flat cone. Its height is three thousand two hundred and fifty-six meters. There are numerous glaciers on the top, which are not affected at all by the fumaroles that form nearby and warm the inside of the volcanic crater. This volcano is a champion of rock and volcanic rocks.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

8. Dzenzursky Volcano is a long-abandoned volcano, whose crater now contains a glacier. But in the southeastern part of Dzenzursky there is a fumarole, covering an area of one hundred square meters, which heats the inner waters to boiling temperatures of one hundred degrees.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

9. Vilyuchinsky volcano – is located near a fairly large city of Kamchatka – Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. It has long been extinct and is characterized by a cut top, with areas filled with ice, and lava flowing down it in ancient times, thanks to fumaroles, has become multicolored.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

10. Sharp Tolbachik volcano – has a sharp roof, which was formed by a glacier. The height of the volcano is three thousand six hundred and eighty-two meters. The foot is covered by glaciers, the most famous of which is the Schmidt Glacier, from which you can clearly see the barrancos, which picturesquely cut the Tolbachik ledges. From the west, you can see dikes that look like jagged walls of basalt origin, which are of interest not only to researchers but also to ordinary tourists.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

11. Xudach volcano is shaped like a truncated cone, with craters filled with acid lake waters. This volcano reaches a height of only one thousand meters, whereas at the time of its emergence it had a height of two thousand meters, but in the process of its volcanic activity, became a thousand meters lower. There are many calderas of different sizes and ages. Ksudach volcano is the most unusual volcano in Kamchatka: one can find lakes with the clearest water, a waterfall springs from its caldera, and beautiful alder forests grow on the slopes of the volcano.

Famous Volcanoes of Kamchatka

12. Mutnovsky volcano is a complex massif with numerous fumarole zones, several craters, a hot mineral spring, bubbling boiling pots and warm lakes. The height of this Kamchatka volcano is two thousand three hundred and twenty-three meters. Nearby, the Vulkannaya River flows, tumbling into a huge and beautiful waterfall.

Volcanoes of Kamchatka, so dangerous and beautiful in all their manifestations, each year attracts more and more tourists, who rush out of their settled homes and leave their comfort zone and go on a long journey to the farthest region of Russia – Kamchatka, to see these amazing natural creations.

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